The crystal structure of the most active antifungal compound 3 is

The crystal structure of the most active antifungal compound 3 is also reported. We have previously reported the synthesis and NMR elucidation of these compounds.15 and 16 Sabouraud dextrose broth was inoculated with C. albicans and grown in an incubator (37 °C; optical density of 0.5 at 600 nm). C. albicans (ATCC strain 10231) culture was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). The broth was prepared according to the manufacturer’s protocol.

The fungal susceptibility assay was based on a microplate method but with modifications. 17 Compounds (1–7) were prepared in pure DMSO at stock concentrations of 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 mM. Firstly, 100 μl/well of sterile broth was added into a clear, sterile 96-well microlitre plate (Corning Life Sciences, Acton, MA, USA). Fulvestrant purchase Secondly, 6 μl/well of the compound at the appropriate concentration above was added

and the plate tapped to mix the contents. Thirdly, 94 μl/well of sterile GSK1349572 water was added and the plate tapped. Finally, 100 μl/well of the culture was added and the plate tapped and incubated (37 °C; 18 h). Therefore, with a final volume/well of 300 μl and a dilution factor of 50×, the final concentration of DMSO/well was 2% v/v and the final concentrations of each compound/well were 30, 50, 70, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 μM. Fungal growth was not significantly inhibited by the 2% v/v DMSO (data not shown). The positive control used was the known antifungal drug clotrimazole. Fungal growth was quantified by optical density (600 nm) in a microplate reader (BioTek ELx800, Winooski, VT, USA). In vitro cytotoxicity of the synthesized homoisoflavanones was tested against a Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cell line using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenyltetrazo-liumbromide (MTT) assay. The MTT assay is a colourimetric assay to determine cellular Oxygenase growth and survival, and compares well with other available assays. 18 and 19 The tetrazolium

salt MTT was used to measure cell viability. The homoisoflavanones were prepared in a 2 mg/ml stock solution containing 10% v/v DMSO. Emetine was used as the reference drug at an initial concentration of 100 μg/ml serially diluted in 10-fold to obtain 6 concentrations, the lowest being 0.001 μg/ml. Homoisoflavanones were diluted similarly. The DMSO solvent system had no measurable effect on cell viability (data not shown). Data are reported as the mean ± standard error of the mean of four independent experiments with duplicate measurements. Fungal growth was quantified as a percentage of the control without the test compound. GraphPad Prism (version 5.02; GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA) was used to present and analyze the data. MIC50 values were deduced from the graphs. Statistical comparisons between 0 and each concentration for each compound were made by one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni’s post-test to determine P values. A value of P < 0.05 was considered significant.

Dans une étude pilote récente, Kalinchenko et al [84] ont mis en

Dans une étude pilote récente, Kalinchenko et al. [84] ont mis en évidence dans quelques cas un effet bénéfique de la substitution par androgènes sur le processus de cicatrisation de lésions artérielles du pied chez le diabétique, résultat qui pourrait être lié à un effet non génomique de la testostérone sur la paroi vasculaire [85]. Au nombre

des facteurs sur lesquels repose la décision de s’abstenir ou au contraire de mise en route d’une androgénothérapie dans ces situations doit s’inscrire le fait que l’obtention d’une réduction pondérale substantielle ou d’un meilleur équilibre du diabète sont susceptibles par eux-mêmes d’atténuer ou de faire disparaître un hypogonadisme que l’on pourrait considérer comme fonctionnel. Néanmoins, cette évolution qui ne peut avoir qu’une influence positive sur la fonction testiculaire endocrine, n’est sans doute pas suffisante à elle seule dans une majorité de cas, ce qui amène alors Bosutinib à discuter, dans un deuxième temps, l’intérêt d’une substitution par androgènes. Dans une étude longitudinale de cinq ans, Saad et al. [86] ont rapporté que le traitement par undécanoate de testostérone d’obèses dont la testostéronémie initiale moyenne était < 3 ng/mL aurait été suivi d’une perte de poids moyenne de 16 kg, ramenant l’IMC de 33 à 29 kg/m2. Les mêmes auteurs ont rapporté que high throughput screening assay la substitution par testostérone majorait significativement les effets bénéfiques pondéraux et métaboliques

de la diététique et de l’exercice physique [86]. Obésité, SMet et DT2 s’accompagnent fréquemment d’un déficit androgénique. À taux physiologiques, la testostérone exerce des effets bénéfiques sur l’insulino-sensibilité, la composition Adenosine corporelle, les paramètres du SMet, la production de cytokines

pro-inflammatoires et la fonction des cellules endothéliales. Pour ces raisons, la détection d’un déficit androgénique apparaît justifiée chez les obèses, les patients atteints d’un SMet ou de DT2. Le dépistage systématique d’un déficit gonadique chez le patient diabétique, qui fait désormais partie des recommandations de l’American Diabetes Association, sera d’autant plus à réaliser qu’existent des symptômes cliniques pouvant lui être attribués. Dans ce cas, une démarche similaire apparaît souhaitable chez le patient obèse ou au profil de SMet. La compensation du déficit androgénique chez le patient obèse ayant a fortiori un profil de SMet ou un DT2 pourrait offrir de réels avantages potentiels. L’objectif du traitement serait alors de situer le taux de testostérone plasmatique dans la moitié supérieure de la norme pour la tranche d’âge. L’initiation d’un tel traitement nécessite bien évidemment d’avoir au préalable affirmé une baisse anormale du taux de testostérone plasmatique, d’avoir écarté ses contre-indications absolues (notamment prostatiques) et d’établir une étroite surveillance de la tolérance et de l’efficacité de cette substitution.

Despite encouragement from the medical professions, most people f

Despite encouragement from the medical professions, most people fail to meet the most minimal level of daily exercise that would prevent the

deleterious effects of hypomobility (American Diabetes Association 2008, Tudor Locke et al 2000, Wei et al 2000). Thus, the finding that static stretching has the potential to be GSK1349572 a viable treatment for hyperglycemia provides an alternative treatment modality in the absence of the patient’s desire to exercise. In addition, stretching skeletal muscles similarly to that demonstrated in this study is a hopeful alternative to exercise for those patients with Type 2 diabetes who are too disabled to exercise. Some patient groups that could benefit from a stretching program for improved glucose control might be patients who have sustained a spinal cord injury, patients who have New York Class III/IV rheumatoid arthritis, stroke patients, and those individuals who are constrained to long term bed rest. As physical therapists and nurses interact with these hypomobile patients, 20–40 minutes of passive static stretching could be incorporated into the patient plan of care. Also, many nursing homes do not have a policy to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment algorithm in their resident population with diabetes to determine if the staff is able to control the glucose peaks and nadirs in these patients (Feldman et al 2009). Few nursing homes, for example, have a policy to evaluate

the NSC 683864 supplier patient’s HbA1c values routinely (Feldman et al 2009), a

fundamental recommendation by the American Diabetes Association (2008). Failure to control blood glucose levels adequately in the diabetic population represents nearly 50% of all deaths in nursing homes (Russell et al 2005). If a stretching program (either passive or active) under the supervision of a physical therapist or other trained personnel was established, these patients could realise better blood glucose control and health at a substantial financial saving. We acknowledge that this study looked only at the immediate effect of stretching Endonuclease and did not ascertain if this effect could be carried over successive days of stretching. Nevertheless, Kokkonen and colleagues (2007) have shown that a program of 40 minutes static stretching done three times a week can increase muscle strength and endurance. In addition, Nelson and colleagues (2005) have presented data showing that static stretching raises the metabolic rate similar to the rate estimated for walking 40 m/min. These findings, coupled with the results of this study, suggest that stretching daily for 20–40 min may help a person to control or lower blood glucose levels. In conclusion, this study shows that static stretching is an additional viable activity that can help regulate blood glucose acutely. Since it requires little effort by the individual, it appears to be an advantageous treatment for those with reduced physical capabilities.

Then, we investigated the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes using t

Then, we investigated the roles of 5-HT receptor subtypes using the respective antagonists. MI-773 cost Moreover, we investigated the involvement of AMPA receptor stimulation in the action of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist, since AMPA receptor stimulation reportedly mediates the enhancement of the serotonergic system by ketamine. Nine-week-old male

C57BL/6J mice (Charles River Laboratories, Yokohama) were used for all the experiments. The animals were maintained under a controlled temperature (23 ± 3 °C) and humidity (50 ± 20%) with a 12-h light/dark cycle (lights on at 7:00 a.m.). Food and water were provided ad libitum, except for the deprivation of food for 24 h prior to the NSF test. All the studies were performed according to the Taisho Pharmaceutical Pexidartinib clinical trial Co., Ltd. Animal Care Committee and met the Japanese Experimental Animal Research Association standards, as defined in the Guidelines for Animal Experiments (1987). MPEP (Sigma–Aldrich

Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 0.5% methylcellulose (0.5% MC). 2,3-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-Sulfonamide (NBQX) (Tocris Cookson Ltd., Bristol, UK) was suspended in saline. PCPA (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd, Osaka) and ritanserin (Sigma–Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) were suspended in 0.5% MC. N-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl-N-(2-pyridynyl)cyclohexane-carboxamide (WAY100635) (Sigma–Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in saline. MPEP (3 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) 60 min prior to the test. NBQX (1, 3,

and 10 mg/kg) and WAY100635 (0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 65 min and 90 min prior to the test, respectively. SB-3CT Ritanserin (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg) was administered i.p. 90 min prior to the test. PCPA (300 mg/kg) was administered i.p. twice daily (at 7:00–11:00 and 16:00–19:00) for 3 consecutive days, and the tests were conducted 18 h after the final administration. All the drugs were injected at a volume of 10 mL/kg body weight. The doses for the systemic administration of MPEP, NBQX, PCPA, WAY100635, and ritanserin were selected based on previous studies (11) and (22). The NSF test was performed during a 5-min period, as described previously (11). Of note, we previously reported that fluvoxamine exerted an effect following treatment for 28 days in the NSF test, while MPEP exerted an effect after single treatment under the same condition (22). The mice were weighed, and all food was removed from their cages. Water continued to be provided ad libitum. Approximately 24 h after the removal of the food, the mice were transferred to the testing room, placed in a clean holding cage, and allowed to habituate for 30 min. The testing apparatus consisted of a Plexiglas box (45 × 45 × 20 cm) in an illuminated (approximately 1000 lux), soundproofed box. The floor of the box was covered with 1 cm of wooden bedding.

Vaccines were only injected once in each fish, with a dose of 0 0

Vaccines were only injected once in each fish, with a dose of 0.05 ml for ALPHA JECT micro®6 and the ALV405-based vaccine, and 0.1 ml for the commercial SAV vaccine. All vaccinations were done automatically by Lumic vaccination machines (Lumic AS, Norway), according to recommendations from the manufacturers. This implies that fish were vaccinated with the commercial SAV vaccine (December 2nd–14th, 2010) approximately seven weeks prior to injection of ALPHA JECT micro®6, while the ALV405-based vaccine was injected simultaneously with this vaccine. Fish vaccinated with either the commercial SAV vaccine or the ALV405-based vaccine, were held separately until

transfer to the sea cages, where they were mixed to avoid cage effects. AZD6244 concentration see more The proportion of fish vaccinated with the ALV405-based vaccine was 18.3% and 16.1% in cages 1 and 2, respectively, while the remaining fish were vaccinated with the commercial SAV-vaccine. The groups were identified by removal of the adipose fin for fish vaccinated with the ALV405-based vaccine. Mortalities were recorded daily, and fish health was monitored by an external fish health service.

Official diagnosis of PD was made by the Norwegian Veterinary institute according to their criteria. Mortalities in the study-population were recorded daily until October 5th, 2011. Atlantic salmon (mean weight: 35.5 g) were vaccinated with the monovalent ALV405-based vaccine (0.05 ml dose) or the commercial vaccines ALPHA JECT micro®6 (0.05 ml dose) or ALPHA JECT®6-2 (0.1 ml dose) (n = 35 in each group). Fish were kept at 17 °C water temperature throughout the experiment. Adhesions and melanization of the viscera were recorded 6 and 12 weeks post vaccination (n = 15 per group, per sampling) using a modified Speilberg scale [23]. The efficacy of polyvalent ALV405-based vaccines with different antigenic dose were tested in a intraperitoneal challenge model. Atlantic salmon were tagged, vaccinated and allocated to duplicate tanks according to Table 1. The challenge was

done as described above, except that no cohabitant groups were included, and the challenge isolate ALV407 was Megestrol Acetate used. Efficacy was measured by relative percent survival. The softwares GraphPad Prism 5 and InStat 3 were used for all statistical analyses. Relative percent survival (RPS) was calculated by the following formula: (1 − (% mortality in test group/% mortality in control group)) × 100. The challenge isolate ALV413 caused an accumulated mortality of 87.5% in both parallel tanks in the i.p. challenged fish that had received the PBS placebo vaccine (Fig. 1A). The inactivated ALV405-based vaccine provided a highly efficient protection against mortality with a relative percent survival of 100 and 97 in the two parallel tanks (average RPS = 98.5). It performed significantly better than the commercial SAV vaccine, which gave an RPS of 79 and 51 (Average RPS = 65, p < 0.0001 using Fisher’s exact test).

Bangladesh, India (Uttar Pradesh), Mozambique, and Uganda were ch

Bangladesh, India (Uttar Pradesh), Mozambique, and Uganda were chosen to reflect various population sizes and urbanicity among developing countries in Africa and Asia (see Table 1). Session size data were collected from representative Gemcitabine cost facilities in the four countries. IPV wastage and associated costs were examined in this paper, though our model enables users to simulate different types of vaccines in various presentation and dose schedules. Our model

uses a 1-dose schedule for IPV. This study used data on session sizes to model populations from Bangladesh, India (Uttar Pradesh), Mozambique, and Uganda. The rural data from Bangladesh originated from four clinics in the Sunamganj district, consisting of one large outpatient clinic, two union health centers, and one subcenter. The urban data from Bangladesh came from three urban subcenters, two urban HC III clinics, and three large urban clinics (“HC” stands for “health center”). The number of pentavalent vaccine doses administered between January and December 2012 were counted at each session. For India, we collected data on the number of DPT doses administered in two HC III clinics in the Basti district of Uttar Pradesh from January to February 2012. There were no data available from urban clinics in Uttar Pradesh. The data from Mozambique came from 74 Centro Salud Rural (CSR) 1 sessions, 49 CSR2 sessions, as well as 45 outreach sessions find more from the Inhambane district of Mozambique in 2012. The number of

children receiving a pentavalent vaccine each day was recorded. There were also no data available from urban clinics in Mozambique.

The Ugandan data originated from the Service Provision Assessment (SPA) Survey of 2007 that was collected by Macro International [14]. After weighting, the survey provided a national representative sample of all government health care facilities in Uganda. Data were collected by site inspections and health record review from 433 facilities providing immunization at HC-IIs, HC-IIIs, HC-IVs, rural hospital settings and urban settings. Adenosine The SPA survey had sampling weights for each type of facility, so one can produce estimates of the national count of each type of facility. The counts of daily children arriving in facilities in the SPA data were based on all children, not just children requesting immunization. The estimated number of facilities in each country relied on SPA data in Uganda [18], and Bangladesh [15]. Facility count estimates for Mozambique were extrapolated on a population basis from Inhambane province to all Mozambiquan provinces. Facility count estimates for India were confined to only rural Uttar Pradesh. In each country or region, the daily session size data for each clinic type was determined by fitting the parameters of various distributions. A maximum likelihood algorithm to find parameters that minimized the root mean squared error between the data and each candidate distribution was implemented in Palisades @Risk Version 6.

For reasons explained later our

modelling and NNV estimat

For reasons explained later our

modelling and NNV estimation subsequently required restriction to calendar week 46, 2003–calendar week 20, 2009. Since an influenza diagnosis may not have been established for all admitted with influenza, we combined hospitalizations with a main ICD-10 diagnosis of influenza and hospitalizations with a main diagnosis of a respiratory infection that can possibly be related to influenza (RIRI) (Table 1). Regardless of the number of times the diagnosed individuals were admitted and discharged during a calendar week, a maximum of one hospitalization episode per week and person was included. There is no register on all pregnancies buy Vandetanib in Sweden, but there is a Medical Birth Register. Therefore only pregnant women who had given birth in Sweden were eligible for our study. The register includes women who delivered a living child, or a deceased child after 27 weeks (before June 2008) or after 21 weeks (thereafter). The national registration numbers of the women who had given birth during the study period were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and linked to the National Patient Register. Both registers are kept by the National Board of Health and Welfare (NBHW). Identified cases with a main diagnosis

belonging to either influenza or RIRI were categorized as such. Nearly all pregnant women in Sweden regularly attend prenatal care [20]. Nonetheless 3–8% of the women lacked a registered date of their last period, or an ultrasound estimated date of beginning of their pregnancy, AZD8055 in vitro and were excluded from the study. Based on the date of the beginning of the pregnancy trimesters were approximated (1st: ≤84 days, 2nd: 85–182 days, 3rd: ≥183 days). Finally, the number of pregnant women was aggregated by calendar week, year and trimester. The data was extracted and aggregated Oxalosuccinic acid by the NBHW and thereafter delivered to the investigators. Since the study was carried out with aggregated data it did not require a review by an Ethics Review Board. To estimate the number of hospitalizations

with RIRI that could be attributed to influenza but for which the main diagnosis was not influenza, we fitted a generalized additive (GAM) quasi-Poisson regression model with identity link [21] to the RIRI hospitalizations. The model included: calendar week, which modelled the baseline with a cyclic penalized cubic regression spline function; and the weekly number of laboratory influenza reports with one parameter for each season, which modelled hospitalizations above the baseline that could be attributed to influenza. By using identity link we could assume that these hospitalizations were proportional to the laboratory influenza cases. We also calculated Wald confidence intervals for the proportions. During the included time period, 94–95% of all pregnant women were 20–39 years old [22].

, 2001, Mikkaichi et al , 2004, Yamaguchi et al , 2010 and Taub e

, 2001, Mikkaichi et al., 2004, Yamaguchi et al., 2010 and Taub et al., 2011). IWR-1 solubility dmso Similarly, Rh123 has been described as a substrate for MRP1 (Hamilton et al., 2001), the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) (Doyle et al., 1998) and OCT (Masereeuw et al., 1997 and van der Sandt et al., 2000). The absence of vectorial transport of 3H-digoxin and Rh123 in RL-65 cell layers also indicates these other transporters may not be expressed or functional in the model. Transport studies were performed in RL-65 cell layers 8 days after seeding on Transwell® inserts. There is currently no standardised

time in cultures prior to permeability measurements in human bronchial epithelial cell layers and these are commonly conducted in 8–21 day old cell layers. However, there are indications in the literature which suggest transporter levels in pulmonary in vitro absorption models may be affected by the length in culture, with an optimal expression and activity achieved after 21 days ( Madlova et al., 2009, Haghi et al., 2010 and Mukherjee et al., 2012). Therefore, 8 days in culture may not have been sufficient for expression

of fully functional transporter systems in RL-65 selleck inhibitor cell layers. In the culture conditions tested, the layers could nevertheless not be used for drug transport studies after 9–10 days on Transwell® as the TEER decreased to <200 Ω cm2 thereafter, before cells eventually detached from the filters. There is therefore a need to prolong the time these can be maintained at an AL interface. For instance, culture on different filter material or substrate coatings and optimisation of the medium composition may improve the usefulness of the model as a pre-clinical permeability screening tool. The RL-65 cell line was successfully grown at an air–liquid interface in a defined serum-free medium for 8 days. RL-65 layers exhibited suitable absorption barrier properties including TEER and paracellular permeability in the same range as established human bronchial epithelial models. Furthermore, they expressed transporters present

in the native epithelium, although their functional not activity was not demonstrated. This initial study indicated that, following further optimisation of the culture conditions, RL-65 cell layers may offer a valuable in vitro model for permeability screening in rats and assist in the evaluation of interspecies differences in pulmonary drug absorption. This work was carried out under the Targeted Therapeutics, Centre for Doctoral Training at the University of Nottingham (Grants EP/D501849/1 and EP/I01375X/1) and AstraZeneca. This was funded by AstraZeneca, the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC, UK) and the University of Nottingham. The authors would like to thank François Spiertz, Fabrice Bayard and Natasha Tang for collection of preliminary data.

Strengths of our study also warrant comment Analyses were based

Strengths of our study also warrant comment. Analyses were based on a well-established cohort of farmers from an inclusive sampling frame. Our sampling was developed taking into account the full geographic, and resultant farming practice, range of agriculture in Saskatchewan. We were able to consider ranges of exposure to different types of farm

work allowing the assessment of dose-response. We were also able to compare findings from the cohort with those from the Canadian and Saskatchewan population using comparable measures. Our findings suggest that there is an increased risk of being overweight or obese with higher levels of mechanization. This is of obvious public health importance as the negative health consequences of obesity are well established (Must et al., 1999). Obesity also has consequences in terms of lost productivity, and BMN 673 cell line on farms this has been demonstrated in terms of sick leave for back disorders stemming from tractor work as well as leaves from work due to disability related to obesity (Hartman et al., 2006). All CH5424802 of these consequences can negatively impact the health of farmers and the viability of farm operations. Despite these negative impacts, we are not promoting a reduction in farm mechanization as a viable intervention. First, replacement of mechanized with non-mechanized tasks will undoubtedly lead to

more opportunity for exposure to risk and hence injury. Second, reducing mechanization would reduce productivity in an already economically unstable occupational environment. Therefore, addressing heightened risks for obesity amongst farm people will need to be done within the context of an occupational environment that is becoming increasingly mechanized. Researchers and employers are developing Calpain strategies to incorporate light intensity activity

into sedentary office occupations (e.g., standing desk, movement breaks) (Chau et al., 2010), and similar approaches could be considered for sedentary farming tasks. Increased efforts should be placed on increasing leisure-time physical activity amongst farm people, particularly those who spend most of their occupational time being sedentary. Finally, interventions could focus on the other behavioral determinants of obesity such as improving eating and sleep behaviors. This novel Canadian analysis examined engagement in different types of mechanized and non-mechanized work and how these related to overweight and obesity. Obesity is a major health issue on farms, and as such requires attention at both clinical and population health levels of intervention. While the mechanization of farm work has obvious benefits in terms of productivity, its potential effects on risks for overweight and obesity must be recognized. Conflict of Interest Statement No conflicts of interest to declare by any author. Ainsworth et al., 2000 Brumby et al., 2013 Bonauto et al., 2014 Cassady et al., 2007 Chau et al., 2010 Chen et al.

The vast collection of phenotypic data available through microbia

The vast collection of phenotypic data available through microbial

surveillance program enabled us to reach at conclusion that among the used drugs, Elores showed a significant susceptibility against carbapenemase producing A. baumannii clinical isolates and hence can be considered as a choice of drug in carbapenemase producing A. baumannii infections. All authors have none to declare. Authors are thankful to sponsor, Venus Pharma GmbH, AM Bahnhof 1-3, D-59368, Werne, 198 Germany, for providing assistance to carry out this study. Also thanks to centres which provided 3-deazaneplanocin A strains and participated in EASE programme. “
“Medicinal plants are the most important source of folk medicine for the majority of the world’s population.1 World health organization (WHO) estimates

that 80% of world population relies on herbal medicines selleckchem for primary health care.2, 3 and 4 A number of plant products have been identified through phytochemistry and the extract of their different plant parts are useful in curing various diseases without side effects.4 Plants contain lot of phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenes, fatty acids, amino acids, saponins, glycosides and sterols that have disease preventive properties.2 and 5 Genus Tamarix (commonly known as tamarisk) is an evergreen shrub or tree growing to 1–18 m tall. 6 It is composed of about 50–60 species of flowering plants. 7 Tamarix dioica is commonly known as Ghaz or khagal belongs to family Tamaricaceae is found in Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. T. dioica is used as a diuretic, carminative and for the treatment of hepatic and splenic inflammation. Crude extract of the leaves of T. dioica tree shows MTMR9 antifungal activity. 8 Literature survey revealed that, no work has been done on phytochemicals screening of T. dioica. The present study was designed to carry out the phytochemicals screening of stems, flowers, leaves and roots of T. dioica for first time. The stems, flowers,

leaves and roots of T. dioica was collected from District Jamshoro (longitude: N 25.4304″ and latitude: E 68.2809″), Sindh, Pakistan in September 2012 and identified by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Tahir, Rajput, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan. A voucher specimen (2671317) of the plant was deposited in the herbarium of same institution. T. dioica stems, flowers, leaves and roots were washed thoroughly 3 times with sterile water, dried in shadow, crushed into powder and stored in airtight bottles before analysis. 50 g powdered of different parts (stems, flowers, leaves and roots) of T. dioica were extracted separately with double distilled water for 72 h. The extract was filtered (using Whatman no. 1 filter paper). The filtrate was analyzed for phytochemical test.