We recommend that the intervention be implemented in institutionalised older people under professional supervision. eAddenda: Table 4 available at jop.physiotherapy.asn.au Ethics: The study was performed according to the principles established
with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), as revised in 2000 in Edinburgh, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committees. All participants gave written informed consent before data collection began. Competing interests: Nil Support: The study was funded by Government of Extremadura, Department of Economy, Trade and Innovation, European Social selleck compound Fund (PD10188), and the European Regional Development Fund (GR 10127). We are grateful to all the workers in the nursing home and to all the participants in the study. “
“Cardiorespiratory deconditioning is a common secondary
physical impairment experienced by people who have sustained a traumatic brain injury, with measured peak oxygen uptake ranging from 16.5 mL/kg/min (Bhambhani et al 2005) to 36.5 mL/kg/min (Hassett et al 2007). Comparing these measured values to age-matched able-bodied data from the American College of Sports Medicine (American College of Sports Medicine 2000), people with traumatic brain injury are rated as below average fitness (ie, below the 30th percentile fitness level). Deconditioning results from prolonged bed rest (Saltin et al 1968) and inactivity during initial hospitalisation for an extended period of time, and
is further perpetuated by psychosocial consequences why of the injury such PCI32765 as lack of motivation and initiative (Chervinsky et al 1998, Satz et al 1998) and depression (Fann et al 2003). Cardiorespiratory deconditioning therefore needs to be addressed as part of the rehabilitation program for people with traumatic brain injury. The American College of Sports Medicine has established guidelines for the recommended exercise dosage to induce a cardiorespiratory fitness training effect. The guidelines at the time this project was commenced recommended an exercise frequency three to five times per week, at an intensity of 40 or 50% to 85% heart rate reserve, duration of ≥ 20 minutes, and participating in an exercise mode that uses large muscle groups in a rhythmical and continuous nature (Swain and Leutholtz 2007). The American College of Sports Medicine has also established guidelines for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities Libraries including people with traumatic brain injury and stroke (Palmer-McLean and Harbst 2009), in which the exercise dosage is prescribed based on caloric expenditure. This is determined from the ‘relative exercise dosage’, which combines the intensity and duration of exercise. That is, you can have the same caloric expenditure from high intensity, short duration exercise as you can from low intensity, long duration exercise.