Thus, this model seemed also to support
overlapping mechanisms Selleckchem Ponatinib underlying these two diseases. In this model, IL-17 and TNF-alpha are shown to play critical roles on developing autoimmune features. Aortitis and arthritis are greatly suppressed in conditions without IL-17 or TNF-alpha. As biological agents targeting TNF-alpha were reported to be effective in patients with TAK even with high disease activity, this model would give evidence of association between TNF-alpha and TAK progression. Other micro-organism infections, including Chlamydia pneumonia are reported to induce aortic inflammation.[80, 81] Vascular involvement was not reported in IL-12B deficient mice, but the antiangiogenic effect of IL-12 is widely reported.[83, 84] IL-12-expressing tumor cells show low metastasis ability. In fact, IL-12/23 deficient endothelial cells
showed rapid wound healing. Thus, high levels of IL-12p40 in patients with TAK may prevent endothelial cells from healing from inflammation. Vascular involvement was not reported in FCGR2A or 3A deficient mice. However, a recent study reported that gene expression Hydroxychloroquine manufacturer analysis of endothelial progenitor cells from a vascular disease rat model revealed a marked increase of FCGR2A expression. Although exact mechanisms underlying TAK are still unclear, recent reports have made much progress in the understanding of the pathophysiological aspects of this disease. Basic involvement of the aorta can be found in adventitia media and inflammatory lesions can be found in the vaso vasorum of adventitia media. Thus, activation of vaso vasorum endothelial cells followed by recruitment of lymphocytes should be involved in the process of TAK. Infiltrating cells in adventitia media are composed of natural killer (NK) cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, γδT cells, macrophages and neutrophils.
Pathological findings based on aortic tissues from patients C1GALT1 revealed that NK cells and γδT cells are involved with apoptosis of endothelial cells through production of perforin and killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K (NKG2D). Among CD4+ T cells, Th1 cells secreting IFN-gamma are deeply involved with the pathophysiology of TAK. IFN-gamma promotes the formation of granulomatous lesion and giant cells.[88-90] Peripheral T cells in patients with TAK were reported to be in active state with increased CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting dominant Th cells. A recent finding also showed Th17 cells are involved with the pathophysiology of GCA, suggesting the involvement of Th17 in TAK pathogenesis.[92, 93] Notch signaling was also suggested to be involved with GCA. Apoptotic signaling molecules are highly expressed in endothelial cells and NK cells. Adventitia media of the aorta in patients with TAK was reported to highly express major histocompatibility complex class I and II and intracellular adhesion molecules.