Fluoroquinolones must enter the cell to become effective; therefore, the properties of the cell surface properties play an essential role in the determination of antimicrobial resistance. Electrostatic interactions
between negatively charged bacteria and EuCl-OFX (positive zeta www.selleckchem.com/products/atezolizumab.html potential) put them in touch quickly and reverse the bacterial surface charge. EuCl-OFX has a strong OM-permeabilizing activity at concentrations below the levels needed to achieve eradication of inocula after brief exposure (sub-MIC concentrations of OFX). Although there are reports of OM-permeabilizing action for some fluoroquinolones, it arises as a side effect and occurs after prolonged exposure to supra-MIC concentrations (Chapman & Georgopapadakou, 1988; Vaara, 1992; Mason et al., 1995). Moreover, a previous report showing that
ofloxacin www.selleckchem.com/products/pci-32765.html does not sensitize P. aeruginosa to hydrophobic antibiotics (Vaara, 1992) contributes to our results, attributing the observed effect to the action of cationic polymer. EuCl-OFX interacts with both bacterial cell membranes. In addition to the OM permeabilization, EuCl-OFX causes concentration-dependent depolarization of cytoplasmic membrane in P. aeruginosa cells. The alterations in the bacterial envelopes are reflected in the changes observed in size and granularity of the bacterial cell. Drug-free polymer exhibited bacteriostatic or weakly bactericidal effect after a short exposure time and subsequently recovered. According to the performance of cAMP other known polycationic permeabilizers (Vaara, 1992), our results indicate that, to a large extent and despite being a powerful permeabilizer, EuCl does not kill P. aeruginosa. This lack of correlation between cytoplasmic membrane depolarization and bacterial cell lethality was also described for cationic antibacterial peptides (Zhang et al., 2000). The inhibition of P. aeruginosa growth by EuCl-OFX may involve surface effect and, to some extent,
permeation effect. The cationic polymer would mitigate the electronegativity of cell surface in the process of disorganizing the OM, rendering it permeable to antibiotic. In addition, cytoplasmic membrane depolarization turns bacterial cell more vulnerable. Therefore, the bactericidal action exhibited by EuCl-OFX is derived from a mechanism combining OM-permeabilization and bacterial membrane depolarization coupled with the action of fluoroquinolones on intracellular target. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the interaction of Eudragit E100® with bacterial cells. Although Eudragit E100® is not bactericidal in itself, the ability to alter the OM of P. aeruginosa and induce changes in membrane potential extends the applicability of this polymer as a vehicle for drug delivery into cells or as an adjuvant or potentiator for fluoroquinolones in topical pharmaceutical preparations.