, 1989 and Feuerbacher et al , 2003) A flexible thermal strategy

, 1989 and Feuerbacher et al., 2003). A flexible thermal strategy allows honeybees to collect water at extremely variable environmental conditions. They are able to compensate

for extreme heat loss in the cold and to prevent overheating in bright sunshine at high ambient temperature. Solar heat gain is used for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase the thorax temperature to improve force production of flight muscles. A high thorax temperature also allows regulation of the head temperature http://www.selleckchem.com/products/forskolin.html high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees’ suction pump even at low ambient temperature. This shortens the foraging stays and in turn reduces energetic costs and improves efficiency. Supported by the Austrian Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung (FWF, P16584-B06, P20802-B16). We greatly appreciate the help with electronics and software by G. Stabentheiner and S.K. Hetz, with data evaluation by M. Ablasser, B. Klug, B. Maurer and G. Rauter and for technical assistance by H. Käfer. “
“Karl Erik Zachariassen in early 2009. Courtesy of NTNU (Bjørn M. Jenssen). Photo by Per Harald Olsen. Figure options Download full-size image Download as PowerPoint slide Karl Erik Zachariassen died

unexpectedly on December 11, 2009 in Trondheim at the age of 67. With his death we have lost a dear friend and one of the most innovative scientists within insect ecophysiology. Zachariassen check details graduated from the University of Oslo with a MSc thesis on osmoregulation of flounder in 1972. After graduation he received a Fulbright Scholarship and worked for two years

with Ted Hammel at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California. Zachariassen was always a keen entomologist and at Scripps he began his work on insect thermal physiology with a focus on beetles. Following his return from Scripps, Zachariassen became an Associate Professor Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim. Zachariassen obtained his Norwegian Dr. Philos. degree in 1980. He became a full Professor in 1988, and served in this position until his death. Zachariassen was a very open-minded scientist; he had a wide international network of colleagues, and he found an interest for many scientific questions that he met on his way through life, albeit mostly revolving around ecophysiology of insects and other invertebrates with excursions to ecotoxicology of marine animals and hyperthyroidism of immigrant Africans! No doubt, his main achievements are within the area of desiccation and cold tolerance of insects.

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