The table lists examples of both positive and
negative studies observed with presented drugs. No attempt was made to Selleckchem CYT387 critically … Clinically used drugs tested in orofacial inflammatory pain models in rodents Morphine and the commonly used analgesic drugs such as paracetamol and aspirin are the drugs of choice in inflammatory pain models in rodents. All three have been shown to be effective in decreasing the face-rubbing behavior following formalin Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical injections in both rats (Clavelou et al. 1989; Eisenberg et al. 1996) and mice (Luccarini et al. 2006). Morphine also has shown to be effective in diminishing face-grooming responses following capsaicin application in rats (Pelissier et al. 2002) and mice (Quintans-Junior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2010) and responses to von Frey hairs and air puff following CFA-induced inflammation in mice (Krzyzanowska et al. 2011). In an operant behavior set-up with a thermal stimulus, Neubert et al. (2005b) have shown morphine to reverse the decrease in heating element contact and condensed milk intake following a carrageenan-induced inflammation. Thut et al. (2007) showed the efficacy of the NSAID indomethacin
to prevent the decrease in eating behavior following Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CFA-induced TMJ inflammation in rat. Other NSAIDs have also been tested and showed efficacy in both rat and mouse models (Table 3; Bonjardim et al. 2009; Miranda et al. 2009). Outside of opioid drugs and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical NSAIDs, few studies have been performed with other types
of drugs in rodent orofacial inflammatory pain models. Amitryptiline (alone or in combination with morphine) and gabapentin both showed efficacy in abolishing the second stage of the formalin response (Grabow and Dougherty 2002; Luccarini et al. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 2004) and ketamine reduced capsaicin-induced face-grooming behavior in rats, an effect which was potentiated with morphine (Alvarez et al. 2003). Other authors have tried several noradrenergic antagonists in a rat facial carrageenan model; however, these drugs are generally not the first treatment choice in TMD patients (Rodrigues et al. 2006). Clinically used drugs tested in orofacial neuropathic pain models in rodents The drugs used for the neuropathic conditions vary, depending on the disorder (Table 3). For TN, anticonvulsant drugs such as carmazepine too and or baclofen are the first-line treatment options (Watson 2004; Zakrzewska 2009). Lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, and several other antiepileptic drugs can also be used, sometimes in combination. Gabapentin is a commonly used drug in neuropathic conditions (Moore et al. 2011), however, both Watson and Zakrzewska claim poor results for gabapentin in TN patients (Watson 2004; Zakrzewska 2009). Nevertheless, some reports suggest its efficacy in TN in multiple sclerosis patients (Khan 1998) for neuropathic orofacial pain (Sist et al. 1997) and in postherpetic neuralgia (Alper and Lewis 2002).