5 and 6 The objective of this study

was to assess the cli

5 and 6 The objective of this study

was to assess the clinical and laboratory profile of a sample of Brazilian patients with GSDI recruited from an outpatient referral center for inborn errors of metabolism. The main research hypothesis was that diagnosis of GSDI is delayed in Brazil, both due to a lack of access to diagnostic methods and due to poor awareness of the condition by healthcare providers, thus hindering early access to specific treatment and genetic counseling. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, IPI 145 Brazil). All subjects signed an informed consent prior to study participation. This was an outpatient-based case series with cross-sectional analysis of the variables of interest. A convenience sampling strategy was used. The study was conducted between March of 2011 DZNeP mouse and January of 2013. The criterion for inclusion was a diagnosis of GSDI established using at least two of the following methods (the diagnosis was independently confirmed by the authors in all patients): a) clinical diagnosis, defined by over 12 months of specialist care (led by hepatologist or medical geneticist) and clinical manifestations consistent with GSDI (hypoglycemia with hyperlactatemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperuricemia,

hepatomegaly, and/or growth failure and short stature, and normal levels of creatine phosphokinase [CPK]) at the time of diagnosis or at the time of study inclusion; b) positive family history consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance, as Inositol oxygenase long as GSDI had been confirmed by enzymatic

methods or DNA analysis in the affected relative(s); c) histopathological diagnosis, defined as the presence of histological changes in liver tissue consistent with GSD, such as hyperglycogenated nuclei, mild fibrosis, and fatty changes with lipid vacuoles;7 d) enzymatic diagnosis, defined by negligible activity (< 10%) of G6Pase in fresh or frozen liver tissue samples; or e) molecular diagnosis, defined by the presence of pathogenic mutations in the G6PC gene (for patients with GSDIa) or in the SLC37A 3 gene (for those with GSDIb) as detected by molecular methods. The distinction between GSDIa and GSDIb was mostly based on clinical findings (absence or presence of neutropenia, respectively), as molecular diagnostics were unavailable to the majority of patients. Patients were invited to take part in the study after routine visits. Those who agreed to participate were all assessed by the same researcher and underwent a targeted history, physical examination, and anthropometric assessment.

Therefore, a reliable, low-cost and easy method is needed for in

Therefore, a reliable, low-cost and easy method is needed for in vivo and ex vivo testing of formulations and substances. An overview of different in vivo and in vitro methods to study the penetration and permeation through damaged skin is given by Gattu and Maibach [17] and [44]. These methods can be divided into mechanical,

chemical and biological methods, as well as investigations on clinical diseased skin. The most common method for simulating a disturbed skin barrier is the tape-stripping method [10], [18], [19] and [20]. The horny cell layers are gradually removed with adhesive tape. The tape-stripping method is minimally invasive and can be applied in vivo and ex vivo for humans as well as for animals (e.g., pigs and rats). The efficacy of the tape-stripping method can be influenced by the anatomical site, the application Nutlin-3a molecular weight pressure, the duration of pressure, the removal rate [3] and the type of tape [21]. Furthermore, another difficulty is the inhomogeneous removal of the cell layers due to the elastic network of furrows [22, 23], and the required repetitions to achieve an adequate degree of damage are quite time- and cost-intensive Obeticholic Acid mouse using the validated tape-stripping method by the Simonsen and Fullerton [10]. The objective of the present study was to develop an alternative in vitro skin model to

simulate skin barrier impairment. The following requirements should be fulfilled by this model: simple and quick application, low cost, and good repeatability. Therefore, the stratum corneum was mechanically removed by a sponge with a rough surface, and the permeation of three model drugs, caffeine, sorbic acid and testosterone, which differ in physicochemical properties, such

as octanol-water-coefficient (log P) and molecular weight (MW), was studied and compared with intact and tape-stripped skin. Caffeine and testosterone are marker compounds recommended by the OECD, and sorbic acid is a preservative frequently used in cosmetics. Untreated porcine ears (domestic pig) Bumetanide were obtained from a local slaughterhouse and immediately transferred to the lab under cool conditions. Porcine ears were washed by rinsing with moderately warm water and wiped with paper towels, and the bristles were carefully shortened by trimming. Full-thickness skin was obtained from the outer side of the porcine auricle [24] and stored at −20 °C for up to 3 months. Porcine skin was chosen due to its similarity to human skin in terms of its morphology and permeability [25] and due to its availability. Prior to skin permeation studies, the thawed porcine full-thickness skin was prepared. Untreated skin (intact skin) and skin with an impaired barrier were used to conduct skin uptake studies.

5, 60–80% of genes exhibited induction in the 4 contrasts that in

5, 60–80% of genes exhibited induction in the 4 contrasts that include: NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–C mild day 5, NV–C severe day 1 vs. NV–NC day 1, NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC day 5, NV–C severe day 1 vs. NV–C severe day 5. Many differentially expressed genes showed large fold changes. In the 4 contrasts described, Akt inhibitor 25–31% of differentially expressed genes had a fold change of 3 or greater. Heatmaps were generated to characterize

patterns of gene expression between similar contrasts by including genes with a minimum q value of 0.05 in any contrast ( Fig. 3 and Fig. 4). The NV–C mild group on day 5 showed more similarities to the V–NC groups than to the challenged groups ( Fig. 3). The remaining challenged groups, both vaccinated and non-vaccinated, exhibited similar expression patterns. The only group with notable expression changes over time was the NV–C severe group ( Fig. 4). Gene ontology analysis focused on biological process terms among significant genes. Larger numbers of significantly enriched GO terms were found in contrasts with a higher number of genes with differential expression. Three GO terms related to response (response to stimulus, response to stress, and defense response) were discovered among significantly differentially expressed genes in the contrast of NV–C

severe day 1 vs. NV–C severe 5. Among the other 3 contrasts described (NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–C mild day 5, NV–C severe day 1 vs. NV–NC control day 1, NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC control day 5), a variety of metabolic and biosynthetic processes were common. Prominent within NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–C mild day 5, were

GO terms for signal transduction, immune system processes, Fulvestrant mouse ion homeostasis and, surprisingly, several GO terms centered on reproduction. Within NV–C severe vs. NV–NC control, response terms pheromone were prominent on day 1, and ion homeostasis and DNA structural terms were prominent on day 5. GO analysis of unique and shared differentially expressed genes for 3 contrasts (Fig. 2) was carried out; NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–C mild day 5, NV–C severe day 1 vs. NV–NC control day 1, NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC control day 5. Many of the genes shared among contrasts were related to immune response. These included (a) CD4, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and Rab11a shared by all 3 contrasts; (b) ATPase, CD5, interferon gamma receptor, and toll-like receptor 15 shared by NV–C severe day 1 vs. NV–NC control day 1 and NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC control day 5; (c) ATPase, CD3ε, CD200R1, toll-like receptor 7 shared by NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC control day 5 and NV–C severe day 5 vs. NV–NC control day 5. Avian beta-defensins, CD74 and interleukin-8 were unique to NV–C severe vs. NV–NC control on day 1 (e). Unique to NV–C severe vs. NV–C mild on day 5 (f) were genes related to ion transport and energy (ATPases and ATP synthases), immune response (CD28, CD79b, interleukin 4 receptor, interleukin 10 receptor beta, toll-like receptor 21), and reproduction.

The author has none to declare This study was supported by Grant

The author has none to declare. This study was supported by Grants-in-aid for SKI-606 chemical structure Scientific Research A [to T.T-Y.] from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. “
“Many kinds of adverse reactions induced by drug medications in the oral cavity are now well recognized [1], [2] and [3]. Among these, the most frequent are dry mouth (hyposalivation), dysgeusia, and stomatitis. Stomatitis is a general term for disturbance of oral epithelial cells and covers several types of oral mucosal symptoms. Oral mucosal symptoms caused by drugs can be further divided as follows:

(1) lichenoid reaction/lichen planus; (2) ulcers; (3) erythema multiforme; (4) pigmentation; (5) autoimmune vesiculo-bullous disease; (6)

infections; (7) tumors (fibrovascular hyperplasia); (8) swellings (angioedema); and (9) keratosis [1]. This paper focuses on ulcers and/or erosions in the oral cavity induced by pharmacotherapy, with an emphasis on new drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, angina pectoris, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Oral ulcers are common symptoms observed in the oral cavity and include traumatic, infective, aphthous, ulceration related to dermatoses, drug-induced, ulceration as a manifestation of systemic disease, and ulceration due to malignancy (Table 1) [4], [5] and [6]. When ulcers show typical clinical findings, differential diagnosis may be easy; however, the exact diagnosis is difficult in most cases, and PD0325901 histopathological diagnosis may be needed. Careful examination of the oral mucosa is the most important factor

for determining a provisional diagnosis. Patients are often confused by the term stomatitis, and the precise nature of the complaint should be confirmed. The age, sex, and dental and medical histories of the patient may provide useful information, and the number, shape, size, and location of lesions must also be carefully observed [7] and [8]. Traumatic Methamphetamine ulceration is caused by mechanical, thermal, or chemical irritants. The most frequent causes are ill-fitting dentures, sharp-edged crowns or bridges, and tooth decay. The ulcer floor is usually clear and ulcer margins do not typically show induration on palpation, but sometimes show bleeding, granular appearance, or induration resembling malignant tumor. Viral infection is generally associated with multiple small aphthous ulcerations. The initial presentation is fluid-filled vesicles, but these rapidly break down to form small, round, painful ulcers with ragged margins that often fuse to form large, irregular ulcers. Viral infections in the oral cavity are most commonly due to herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), coxsackie virus and cytomegalovirus.

There have been also attempts

There have been also attempts check details to employ drugs such as bisphosphonate and simvastatin, which induce osteogenesis more efficiently.

CaP implants, including hydroxyapatite (HAp), are well known for good osteoconductivity (the early stage of osteogenesis) as well as for direct binding to bone tissue in vivo. Alkaline phosphatase expression and parathyroid hormone response were higher in cultures grown in HAp than in cultures grown in titanium [6], and the in vitro formation of extracellular matrices was greater on CaP coatings than on titanium. Several mechanisms of the principal factors involved in osteogenesis on CaP ceramics have been considered. First, implanted CaP (HAp) acts as a nucleation site and exhibits crystallographic properties in an AT13387 solubility dmso epitaxial process of the newly developed structure. The calcium ions dissolve from the CaP surface, resulting in the deposition of a mineralized layer. This stimulates the bone cells to continue extracellular matrix (bonding zone) synthesis and calcification [7]. CaP ceramics adsorb many osteo-conductive and/or osteo-inductive proteins, which have an important role in the mineralization of bone tissues. In spite of their rapid and strong bonds to living bone tissues and favorable osteogenic ability, CaP ceramics alone cannot be used for implants because of their

lack of strength. Accordingly, CaP coatings on Ti implants produced by the plasma spraying have frequently been used [8]. These CaP coated implants, however, often develop fractures in their coatings as well as at the titanium interface after implantation. The reason for this is thought to originate in

the comparatively thick, porous, non-uniform (crystalline surrounded by an amorphous mass), and poorly adherent CaP layer produced by plasma spraying (Fig. 5). These fragments of a certain size cause phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to inflammation. It is therefore desirable for the materials to be rapidly and completely absorbed in the host tissues and to be entirely replaced with bone tissue. When osteogenesis occurs at the site where old bones are absorbed (remodeling of bones), the CaP coatings should Methamphetamine be no thicker than necessary. Attempts have recently been made to solve problems in the plasma spraying technique using a cold-plasma surface modification as above-mentioned [9]. In the cold plasma, ion-plating [10] and the ion sputtering [11], which are a kind of physical vapor deposition (PVD), are used to produce implant materials consisting of a thin, homogeneous, and adherent CaP coating. Ion beam dynamic mixing (IBDM) was also introduced as a suitable technique for fabricating a thin and adherent ceramic layer [12].

Three μL of each sample were analyzed on an Acquity UPLC system (

Three μL of each sample were analyzed on an Acquity UPLC system (Waters, Milford,MA, USA) using a UPLC BEH column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) at a temperature of 30 °C. A gradient of (A) deionized purified water Trichostatin A in vivo with 1% formic acid and (B) methanol (Tedia, Brazil) starting with 5% B and ramping to 100% B at 8 min, maintained till 8.50 min, then returning to initial conditions and stabilizing by 10 min. Detection in negative ion modes was achieved on an Acquity TQD mass spectrometer (Micromass Waters, Milford, MA, USA) with capillary – 3000 V, Cone – 30 V, source temperature 150 °C; desolvation temperature 350 °C. The antioxidant

activity of samples was assessed on the basis of scavenging activity of the stable 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical

(DPPH ). 750 μL of a methanolic solution of DPPH (0.02 mg/L) were added to 0.1 μmol of test samples in acetate buffer 0.3 M, pH 3.8 or 120 μL of methanol, in the case of control. Flasks were incubated at 25 °C for 25 min and absorbance was determined at 517 nm. All assays were performed in triplicate. A solution of rutin in acetate buffer 0.3 M, pH 3.8 (0.75 mg/mL) was used to calibrate the equipment. The scavenging capacity of DPPH radical check details was calculated using the following equation: DPPHscavenging effect(%)=(Ac-As/Ac)×100,where Ac and As are absorbance values of control reaction and test samples, respectively. The effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition was determined in a β-carotene-oleic acid system according to the Miller (1971) method with adaptations. A mixture containing 50 μL of β-carotene (2 mg/mL in chloroform), 40 μL of oleic acid standard, 1 mL of chloroform

and 400 mg of Tween 40 was prepared. Chloroform was removed under nitrogen atmosphere and 50 mL of aerated redistilled water were added. The mixture was then subjected to vigorous shaking. In screw-top glasses, 225 μl of β-carotene/oleic acid solution was added to 0.1 μmol of samples in acetate Phospholipase D1 buffer (0.3 M, pH 3.8) or 100 μL of methanol (blank assay). Absorbance was read at 470 nm, at 0 min (immediately after emulsion addition) and after 120 min of incubation at 45 °C (induction of thermal oxidation). Peroxidation leads to the bleaching of the β-carotene molecule, so the higher the absorbance the higher the antioxidant activity. The degradation rate was calculated according to zero order reaction kinetics. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was calculated according to the following equation: %inhibition=[1-(A0-A1)/(A0′-A1′)]×100,where A  0 is the absorbance of sample at zero time, A  1 is the absorbance of sample after incubation (120 min) at 45 °C, A0′ is the absorbance of control at zero time and A1′ is the absorbance of control after incubation (120 min) at 45 °C. Xanthine oxidase activity was determined by measuring the formation of uric acid from xanthine. Xanthine in phosphate buffer 0.1 M, pH 7.4 (1.3 μmol) was incubated with 100 μL of ethanol and test samples (90 μM).

As cultivars can differ distinctly, we included two cultivars in

As cultivars can differ distinctly, we included two cultivars in the experiment. For each treatment, cultivar, and replicate, we measured the concentration of flavonoid glycosides and phenolic acids, assessed head mass, number of leaves, and dry matter content. To sum up, we wanted to investigate three hypotheses with this experiment: (I) Cool-cultivated lettuce selleck chemicals llc plants contain higher concentrations of phenolic compounds than warm-cultivated ones. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers to strictly separate the effects of temperature from radiation because they are known to strongly interact (Løvdal et al.,

2010). Red Oak Leaf and red Lollo lettuce (L. sativa L. var. crispa L. cv. Eventai RZ and L. sativa L. var. crispa L., cv. Satine, respectively; RijkZwaan, De Lier, The Netherlands) differ regarding their recommended greenhouse cultivation schedule: The seed company recommends red Oak Leaf from fall to spring, throughout the winter (November to April), while for Lollo Rosso cultivation in late fall and spring is advised. The seeds were sown in rockwool cubes, Tenofovir kept at 10 °C for 2 days for germination and subsequently grown in a conventional

greenhouse until the experiment started. When plants had developed four true leaves (5 weeks old) and weighed about 0.9 g they were transferred into growth chambers (Yorck, Mannheim, Germany) where they were grown using deep flow technique, in four growth chambers simultaneously. The nutrient solution was prepared according to Sonneveld and Straver (1988) and exchanged and analyzed every week. In two chambers, the air temperature was 20 °C during daytime and 15 °C at night (warm treatment), whereas it was 12/7 °C (day/night) in the other two (cool treatment). Relative humidity was approximately 80%. Radiation was supplied by high-pressure sodium discharge lamps SON-T PLUS 400 W (Philips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands). The light cycle consisted of four elements: Amino acid 11 h of darkness, 0.5 h of dawn, 12 h of light and another 0.5 h of twilight. During the light phase, the mean photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 247 μmol m−2 s−1,

during dusk and dawn, respectively, only some of the lamps were switched on, resulting in a mean PPFD of 95 μmol m−2 s−1, as measured with a portable light meter Li-250 (Li-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA). Hence, the plants intercepted a daily light integral of 11.4 mol m−2 day−1. Plants cultivated for 13 days intercepted a total light integral of 148 mol photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), while those cultivated for 26, 39 and 52 days intercepted 296, 445, and 593 mol PAR m−2 s−1, respectively. To elucidate harvest dates at which the plants cultivated in different temperatures will have reached a comparable growth stage (based on head mass and number of leaves) we used the concept of “sum of temperatures”.

001) ITF supplementation led to an increased caecum (wall and co

001). ITF supplementation led to an increased caecum (wall and contents) weight and decreased the caecal pH values, whereas these effects were more pronounced in YF-fed rats (P < 0.001; Table 3). The total caecal pool of SCFA was significantly increased after ITF consumption (despite the lack of significant effects on total SCFA

concentration), and the YF group showed higher values than did the RAF-fed group (P < 0.001). Moreover, the butyrate concentrations were increased only when YF was the ITF source (P < 0.001; Table 3). As PI3K targets expected, the FP group presented a lower apparent Fe absorption when compared to the FS group, assessed in the last 5 days of the repletion period (days 10–14; P < 0.001). However, ITF consumption did not significantly affect the apparent Fe absorption. The liver Fe concentrations were lower in FP than FS rats, whereas YF consumption recovered to levels comparable to those seen in the FS group. Moreover, RAF consumption resulted in increased hepatic Fe levels compared to the levels in the FP group, although the values remained lower than those of the FS group (P < 0.001; Fig. 2). Several factors in the diet can influence the mineral bioavailability, the magnitude of which depends on inhibitors and promoters in a meal, and hence on the food matrix (Gibson, 2007). Over the past years, the positive effects of ITF on macromineral (Ca, Mg) absorption

and bioavailability have been frequently observed in animal (rats, pigs) (Lobo et al., 2007 and Scholz-Ahrens and Schrezenmeir, 2007) and human studies (Van Der Heuvel, Muys, Van Dokkum, & Schaafsma, 1999). However, data concerning Fasudil cell line their effects on micromineral bioavailability are relatively scarce and so far have presented contradictory results (Scholz-Ahrens & Schrezenmeir, 2007). In particular, although there is some evidence that Fe bioavailability is positively affected (Tako et al., 2008; Yasuda, Roneker, Miller, Welch, & Lei, 2006), to our knowledge, there

are no studies using a non-purified source of ITF on Fe bioavailability in a rat model. In the present study, our results showed that the consumption of diets supplemented STK38 with YF (7.5% ITF) improved the bioavailability of Fe from FP (around 30–50% the bioavailability of Fe from FS; Hurrel, 2002), as evaluated by Hb repletion assay in anaemic rats. Moreover, such effects were more pronounced than those observed after dietary supplementation with 7.5% ITF from RAF, a purified source of ITF from chicory roots. The consumption of ITF led to a higher HRE compared to values observed in the FP group, and this effect was similar to that observed in FS group. Moreover, the RBV of FP in ITF-fed animals was equivalent to that of FS group (considered the reference in Fe bioavailability studies; Hurrel, 2002, Mahoney et al., 1974 and Poltronieri et al., 2000), and this effect was even more significant in the YF group on day 7 of the repletion period.

Adoption of the WHO AQG is not mandatory for any jurisdiction but

Adoption of the WHO AQG is not mandatory for any jurisdiction but they provide a benchmark of internationally accepted air quality which is the minimum needed for reduction of avoidable morbidity and mortality

since WHO AQG are only safer but not absolutely safe limit values (WHO, 2000b). It is also worthwhile to clearly state that only the AQG but not any of the interim targets CCI-779 purchase are based on health evidence of the lowest observable effects. While periodic revision of AQG has long been recommended by WHO (1987b), explicit statements in the WHO guidelines to avoid the allowance of additional numbers of exceedances of short-term AQG, as occurred in Hong Kong (HKEPD, 2009), should also be emphasized in the future because they negate the validity of the short-term values as predictors of annual Venetoclax nmr average air quality and weaken health protection. Based on the widely varying annual average pollutant concentration data in seven cities over seven years, the distribution relationship between the WHO short-term and annual AQG is consistently discordant for NO2 but supported for PM10 and PM2.5. The annual limits for SO2 and O3 derived from the short-term AQG show consistency across different places. Further study is needed to test whether the short-term one-hour AQG value should

be set at 140 μg/m3, 60 μg/m3 lower than the current short-term AQG of 200 μg/m3, in order to achieve the annual AQG of 40 μg/m3. These findings provide hypotheses to be tested by both toxicological and epidemiological studies of air pollution on health. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Application of coefficient of variation to handle systematic missing data of the monitor records. We thank Ben Cowling and Joseph Wu for helpful discussions and opinions. We also thank the following organizations for provision of pollutant data: 1. Environmental Protection Department. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s

Republic of China. (http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd) “
“Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume production chemical primarily used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is present in many consumer products including plastic food Leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase containers, the lining of metal food and beverage cans, toys, dental sealants, thermal receipts, cigarette filters, and medical devices (Geens et al., 2011; Sasaki et al., 2005 and Vandenberg et al., 2009). The primary route of exposure in the general population is thought to be through ingestion (Biedermann et al., 2010, Christensen et al., 2012, Reuss and Leblanc, 2010 and Wilson et al., 2007), although other exposure routes (e.g., dermal absorption) are plausible (Biedermann et al., 2010; Reuss and Leblanc 2010). Human exposure is widespread with BPA being detected in urine samples from 93% of the U.S. general population (Calafat et al., 2008), including 96% of pregnant women (Woodruff et al.

Lichen species connected to aspen depend on different stages of s

Lichen species connected to aspen depend on different stages of succession and consequently, to promote such lichens and other organisms favored by aspen trees, a landscape should consist of forests of different ages with a continuous aspen regeneration. We thank Jan Andersson, Håkan Blomqvist, Thomas P. Johansson, Bengt Norberg, Magnus Persson, Nils Erik Pettersson, Ulf Stäring and Per Simonsson at SCA, and Bo Magnusson and

Gunnar Selling at the Swedish Forest Agency who helped us find suitable sites and gave us access to maps, etc. Ulf Arup for help with identification of some Caloplaca species and Christian selleck chemicals llc Printzen for help with determining Lecidea sphaerella; Karin Öhman, Sebastian Sundberg and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on the manuscript. This work Liver X Receptor agonist was financially supported by the Swedish Research Council Formas (Grants 230-2006-351 and 215-2009-569 to LG). “
“The importance of cost-effectiveness in conservation planning and implementation has grown (Bottrill et al., 2008, Ferraro and Pattanayak,

2006 and Murdoch et al., 2007), reflecting the current pressures on biodiversity and a realization that all species that require conservation investments simply cannot be helped with today’s levels of conservation spending. Since there is a trade-off between money spent on collecting data and money used for actual conservation action, finding the appropriate level for biodiversity Astemizole surveys is an important step in conservation planning. Hitherto, conservation planning studies commonly have been made at a landscape or national scale. Studies at small scales like forest management units, stands and individual trees are not as common (but see Perhans et al. 2011). Conducting biodiversity surveys to decide where and how to invest in different types of conservation actions is normally regarded as one of the first stages in a systematic conservation planning process (Margules and Pressey 2000). Yet, whether or not to

survey and how thorough surveys should be are challenging questions (Possingham et al. 2007). A few studies address these questions by comparing survey benefits and costs. Balmford and Gaston (1999) argue that biodiversity surveys prior to decisions on where to locate new reserves generally allow the selection of fewer, or smaller, areas because the survey data allow selection of areas that complement each other in terms of the conservation features they contain. The cost-effectiveness of surveys depends on this saving in protected area in addition to the costs of land acquisition and maintenance. They suggest that the break-even survey cost is large enough in both developed and undeveloped countries to make surveys cost-effective in a wide range of applications. Grantham et al.