92–0.00)/16.92] × 100. Thus, the value of encapsulation efficiency is around 100% or greater than 98.63% if the limit of detection is subtracted from the total concentration of bixin. The high encapsulation efficiency indicates that all bixin in the suspension was present in the nanocapsule structure (inner part and wall). Such high encapsulation efficiency occurred probably due to the nanocapsule core which contains triglycerides (CCT), which facilitates
solubilisation of bixin; this further indicates that nanoencapsulation is an effective technique learn more for improving the solubilisation of bixin in aqueous media. The microencapsulation of bixin in different food polymers has been reported to achieve a maximum efficiency of 86.4% (Barbosa et al., 2005). The optimal Ibrutinib bixin nanocapsule suspension presented a yellow colour with the following CIELAB coordinates of L∗ = 73.67 ± 0.34, a∗ = 6.01 ± 0.24 and b∗ = 48.60 ± 0.95. Compared to the pure bixin solution prepared
in ethanol:water (20:80), with parameters L∗ = 42.10 ± 0.35, a∗ = 13.54 ± 0.98 and b∗ = 25.50 ± 2.2, the bixin nanocapsule suspension presented an increase in luminosity and yellow colour, which was coupled with a decrease in red colour. The viscosity of a suspension is important because the rheological properties affect all stages of manufacture such as mixing, pumping, filling and are valuable tools in quality control. The behaviour of the bixin nanocapsule suspension in this study is typical for a Newtonian fluid, since the increase of the shear stress was proportional to the increase of the shear rate. The optimal bixin nanocapsule formulation (16.92 ± 0.16 μg/mL) presented a viscosity of 11.4 ± 0.24 mPa.s. Immediately after being produced, the bixin nanocapsule suspension showed a mean pH of 5.89 ± 0.70. Paese et al. (2009) used the same formulation to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated benzophenone-3 and produced nanocapsule suspensions with pH values of 6.56 ± 0.09, while Pohlmann, Weiss, Mertins, Silveira, and Guterres (2002) produced indomethacin-loaded nanocapsule selleck kinase inhibitor suspensions with pH values of 4.2 ± 0.1 in a study aiming to apply the spray-drying technique to produce dried nanocapsules
and nanospheres prepared by the technique of interfacial deposition of preformed polymer, using a similar formulation to that used in this work. One way to evaluate the chemical stability of a nanocapsule suspension is the measurement of the pH, since its decrease can be related to the degradation of the polymer or other ingredient (Kishore et al., 2011 and Mallin et al., 1996). During the first 63 days of storage, no significant change was observed in the pH values (p < 0.05); however, on the 119th day, the pH levels decreased to 4.48 ± 0.32 ( Fig. 4). One way to minimise the changes in pH is to use a buffering agent in the aqueous phase. In a previous study, indomethacin nanocapsule suspensions also showed reduced pH values during storage (3 months) that varied from 4.2 ± 0.