It seems that pilocarpine acting centrally activates both salivary gland secretion
and vasodilation.7, 8 and 10 Because salivation depends on secretory mechanisms and on the increase in blood flow to the glands,23 reduction in salivation may occur if one or both mechanisms are affected. The activation of α2-adrenoceptor with moxonidine reduces the salivary secretion and the vasodilation induced by pilocarpine.15 and 10 Therefore, it is possible that moxonidine inhibits pilocarpine-induced salivation at least partially by reducing salivary gland blood flow. Besides XL184 mouse this, the vasoconstriction and the reduction of the blood flow to the salivary glands produced by the activation of the central α2-adrenoceptors is probably important for the sensation of dryness in the mouth by patients treated with moxonidine or the same type of drugs. In summary, the present results suggest that central cholinergic and α2-adrenergic mechanisms have opposite roles in the control of the salivary gland vascular resistance and blood flow. However, the increase in MAP, HR and mesenteric vascular resistance produced by the cholinergic activation in the forebrain is not affected by central α2-adrenoceptor activation, suggesting that different central mechanisms are activated by pilocarpine to produce the changes in the vascular resistance in different vascular beds. São Paulo State Foundation (FAPESP). None declared. Experimental protocols
were approved by the Animal Experimentation Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP). We would like to thank also Solvay Pharma selleck compound and
Dr. P. Ernsberger for Succinyl-CoA the donation of moxonidine. This research was supported by public funding from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq/PRONEX). “
“Species of the genus Candida are considered commensal yeasts frequently isolated from the oral cavity of healthy patients. 1, 2 and 3 However, these microorganisms can act as opportunistic pathogens under certain circumstances, such as impairment of salivary glands, long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs and antibiotics, denture wear, and malignancies. 4 and 5Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, being present in around 20–50% of the cases of oral infections. 6 Recently, infections with species other than C. albicans, notably Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis have been increasingly described. 7, 8 and 9C. glabrata has become the second most frequently isolated commensal yeast from the oral cavity, 2, 7 and 8 and it is responsible for 15% of mucosal lesions. 2C. dubliniensis is a recently described species of the genus Candida 10 primarily associated with oral candidiasis 11 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Denture stomatitis is a common superficial infection of the palate oral mucosa that affects more than 65% of denture wearers.