4 While the specific terminology to name these units can vary within the literature the nature selleck of the units is inherently similar. The three most important sub-divisions are
termed by Cissik4 as the phase of training, the macro-cycle and the micro-cycle. The major difference between these three sub-divisions is the time period associated with each other (6–30 weeks for the phase of training; 2–6 weeks for a macro-cycle, 1 week for a micro-cycle). This difference in duration enables easier planning as well as an increased flexibility to respond to the athlete(s) reaction to the recently completed training sessions. While different models of periodisation are available (these in simple terms utilise different approaches to vary the training load) they all employ similar structural training units and conceptual approaches to planning. The specific choice of periodisation model will be dictated by factors such as the training requirements of the athlete and the competition schedule that is needed CX-5461 mw to be fulfilled.5 Despite the popularity of periodisation with conditioning coaches in the USA3 there
is limited research to support this model as the most effective theoretical framework to train athletes especially soccer players. In addition, a lack of evidence prevents the direct application of traditional periodisation models to team sports such as soccer.3 These challenges centre around the need for soccer players to attain multiple physical training goals within similar time periods and a competitive fixture schedule that requires multiple (around 40–50) peaks
across a large number of months (n = 10). While it is clear that some general concepts associated with periodisation (for example, the division of the year into phases of training, namely pre-season, the competitive season, and the off-season) are applied within the elite professional game, there is little evidence for the wholesale application of the principles of periodisation. Relatively little information is available, either in the peer reviewed scientific literature or applied professional journals, that provides a detailed outline of the longitudinal training loads experienced by Dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase players in soccer. Recent unpublished research from our group 6 has attempted to characterise such training load patterns in an elite Premier League soccer team. The data have illustrated small variations in training load across both phases of training and macro-cycles indicating that the loading patterns completed by these players does not comply with that which would be expected if the principles of periodisation was applied. While the data are limited to the training load prescription of one team and its coaches it is likely to reflect a common occurrence within the sport.