Once all the surfaces are generated, the creation of each stratig

Once all the surfaces are generated, the creation of each stratigraphic unit included in the 3D volumetric model commenced. Each model layer is constrained by its formation top surface and the top of the underlying unit. Even though the main structures were constrained using seismic surfaces, a more detailed structural fault-block modelling was not carried out during this study. Some cross sections were constructed intersecting faults nearly perpendicular to where the largest fault displacement was observed in the seismic surfaces in each regional fault. From these cross sections a comparison of aquifers/aquitards was made on both

sides of the faults, calculating the percentage of permeable units interfacing either permeable or impermeable units on the opposite side of the faults. This is a simple approach to assess the hydraulic character of faults. The 3D geological model of the Galilee GSK2118436 order Basin and the central part of the Eromanga Basin was developed to assess the overall aquifer/aquitard geometry and the importance of structural features within FG4592 the study area. A series of 23 cross sections was produced, and four of these (CS 04, CS 19, CS 20 and CS 23) are selected to highlight some key results of the model (Fig. 4), notably the thickness of the various formations, and their stratigraphic and geometric relationships relative to each other, particularly

where they are adjacent to faults. Cross Section 04 (Fig. 4a) shows the displacement of the Eromanga Basin units along the Hulton-Rand Structure and the abutment of the Galilee Basin against the same structure. Cross Section 19 (Fig. 4b)

shows a similar scenario to Cross Section 04 for the Tara Structure instead of the Hulton-Rand Structure, but also highlights the displacement Baf-A1 manufacturer of the Eromanga Basin units through the Dariven Fault and displacement along the Cork Fault. However, the displacement along the Cork Fault could not be properly constrained as explained in Section 4.1.2. Cross Section 20 (Fig. 4c) shows an area where regional faults are not identified but where the Galilee Basin was continuous. Lastly, Cross Section 23 (Fig. 4d) shows an area, where the Galilee Basin is nearly absent and the Stormhill Fault and Westland Structure are identified. Additionally two newly defined faults (Thomson River and Lochern faults) are identified, which are likely to play a relevant role on groundwater movement. Due to the sparseness of wells, the identification of structures and their influence on geometric relationships between the stratigraphic units is based primarily on the seismic surfaces. Although structures can be easily recognised in these seismic surfaces (Fig. 5), it is difficult to determine the timing of movement for particular faults. However, through the assessment of vertical fault displacement of different units within the stratigraphic sequence, the understanding on the timing of regional fault movement can be refined (Fig. 5).

There are three principal licensing procedures for vaccines in th

There are three principal licensing procedures for vaccines in the European Selleck SAHA HDAC Union (EU): the centralised procedure, the mutual recognition

procedure and the decentralised procedure (Figure 5.4). These review procedures are expected to be completed within 210 days after receipt of a valid application. Once the manufacturer has submitted the required dossier containing technical, preclinical, and clinical safety and efficacy data, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will complete its scientific evaluation within 210 days. Following this, a Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) opinion is issued (the advisory committee is responsible for preparing the opinions on all questions concerning medicinal products for human use for the EMA). If the CHMP opinion is positive, the vaccine will normally obtain a licence from the European Commission (EC) which will allow use of the vaccine throughout the EU. The mutual recognition and decentralised learn more procedures are European authorisation procedures which give rise to national licences, instead of an EC decision. These procedures are based on the principle of recognition

of the assessment by the Reference Member State (RMS). In the case of the mutual recognition procedure, the RMS has already issued a marketing authorisation. The RMS’ assessment report forms the basis for requesting the other Member States’ mutual recognition of the marketing authorisation (including the Summary of Product Characteristics [SmPC], package leaflet and labelling text). Member States have 90 days to review and approve the RMS’ assessment report Amisulpride and related documentation. The RMS records the agreement of all parties, closes the procedure and informs the applicant accordingly. The decentralised procedure may be used to obtain a marketing authorisation in several Member States when the applicant does not yet have a marketing authorisation in any country of the EU. The applicant requests one country to be the RMS in the

procedure. Within 120 days of receiving a valid application, the RMS prepares the draft assessment report and sends it to the Member States along with the SmPC, package leaflet and labelling text etc. The Member States have 90 days to review and approve the RMS’ assessment report and related documentation. The RMS records the agreement of all parties, closes the procedure and informs the applicant accordingly. A summary of all the products that have been accepted through the decentralised and mutual recognition procedure is published in the European Product Index on the website of the Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA). In the USA, the development of vaccine candidates is regulated through an Investigational New Drug (IND) application which is filed with the FDA, specifically the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER).

Fusion was performed by one of two radiation oncologists (JMC or

Fusion was performed by one of two radiation oncologists (JMC or DB). The prostate was then contoured on the MR images (JMC or DB), and the fused CT–TRUS images were subsequently fused to the MRI matching MR seed voids to the seeds visible on CT. Dosimetry was then calculated based on the MRI prostate contours

and the TRUS prostate contours (Fig. 2). The following dosimetric parameters for the TRUS- and MR-derived prostate were collected and compared: prostate volume, V100, D90, V150, and V200. Values are reported as medians, means, interquartile ranges, and standard deviations using SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software version 17.0 for statistical analysis, with the p-value of 0.05 or less being considered statistically significant. Dosimetric parameters were calculated using the contours from the CT–TRUS fusion and from the MR–CT fusion and are shown in Table 1. There were no significant selleck kinase inhibitor differences in D90, V100, V150, and V200 (p < 0.001) when comparing dosimetric parameters obtained using MRI and CT–TRUS fusion ( Table 2). Despite this, there was a small group of patients for whom agreement in the measured Quizartinib price parameters was not as good, as shown in Table 3. Five patients had differences in MR- and ultrasound (US)-derived

D90 of between 5% and 10%, and 1 patient had a difference of 11.4%. Such differences were much less common in V100, V150, and V200, with 19 of 20 patients having a difference in V100 of less than 5%. There were no implants in this group in which the D90 was less than 110% of the prescription dose (as determined using either MR- or TRUS-based

imaging). Although 11 of 20 patients had differences in prostate volume between MR and TRUS of more than 10%, the actual magnitude of the difference was small with a mean absolute difference as calculated between MR and US of only 3.0 cc (maximum, 7.5 cc). The relation of MR and TRUS volume is shown in Fig. 3. This study suggests that fusion of CT and TRUS may be a reasonable alternative to MR-based dosimetry in patients where MRI is not available. The major advantage of this approach is that TRUS images are readily available. Incorporating preplan TRUS into postoperative PRKACG evaluation does not require the use of additional resources beyond those needed for planning, and this approach does not impose any inconvenience to the patient. In our experience, CT and TRUS images can be fused in about 5 min, and the fusion could be performed by a physician, physicist, or a dosimetrist. The utility of CT–TRUS fusion in postimplant quality assurance may be affected by a number of patient-related factors. First, the presence of the TRUS probe may deform the prostate in some patients. The most commonly observed change in shape was a result of posterior pressure of the US probe to raise the prostate to Row 1 of the template grid. Pulling posteriorly on the rectal wall causes the prostate to move anteriorly on the grid, away from the rectal wall.

The results after being summed up, were divided by the number of

The results after being summed up, were divided by the number of surfaces. The state of oral hygiene can be described as either good (OHI index 0–1), sufficient (OHI index 1–2) or bad (OHI index value 2–3). In order to fully visualize and show to the patient the state of oral hygiene, the coloring tablet, containing fuxine was used. Another form of active orthodontic treatment included upper Schwarz plate with screw by Przylipiak and posterior acrylic capping in order to expand anterior part of the arch in patient with total mesiocclusion Cetuximab with III Angle class and III canine class bilaterally (Fig. 11). Finally, glossogram was made in order to assess the tongue position [22]. The tongue was

coated with the mixture of stomatological

gel with a drop of 1% solution of gentian violet for proper contrast. On the upper arch of patient, coffee filter was placed. Patient was told to make slow up and down movements with tongue (Fig. 12). The state of oral hygiene was sufficient both in the maxilla and in the mandible with OHI values 1.67 Trichostatin A supplier and 2.0, respectively. The overall OHI value for both dental arches was 1.83. Out of 6 teeth assessed in the mandible, 2 teeth on the right side (33.33%) had more than 2/3 of surface covered in dental plaque. Out of 6 teeth assessed in the maxilla, 1 tooth (16.67%) had more than 2/3 of surface covered in dental plaque. The position of tongue and the pronunciation of polish sounds m,b,p,r. during spontaneous speech improved in the second patient during orthodontic treatment. In contrast to other patients with Down syndrome, by whom hypotension of muscles is observed, in this case bruxism was

detected. Upper plate by Morales in both patients helped to enhance the position of tongue. It was reported by parents that bruxism diminished and we observed that attrition surfaces were not larger. High prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with Down syndrome was described by many authors [16] and [17]. Our findings are in accordance with Selleck HA 1077 the results of research done by Al.-Khadra et al. [1], where the majority of patients with Down syndrome had either poor (25%) or fair (66%) oral hygiene status. Lower, yet fairly similar results were obtained by Shyama et al. [26], where the initial value of plaque index in patients with Down syndrome in the age group 11–13 years was 1.69. In the study done by Jokić et al. [27] on Croatian population of disabled children (including those with Down syndrome) the value of OHI index was higher than in our study (ranging from 3.8 to 4.53), indicating significantly poor oral hygiene status. Additionally, in research done on Nigerian children with Down syndrome, 40% of participants had poor oral hygiene [28]. According to many authors, such poor oral hygiene found in patients with Down syndrome might be present due to lack of manual dexterity [26] and [27].

As observed in Fig 1, the selectivity of the CGTX-II, δ-AITX-Bcg

As observed in Fig. 1, the selectivity of the CGTX-II, δ-AITX-Bcg1a and δ-AITX-Bcg1b toxins is highest

for Nav1.5 followed by 1.6 and 1.1 (Nav1.5 > 1.6 > 1.1). δ-AITX-Bcg1b Selleckchem Nutlin-3a was not shown to be potent and was consequently abandoned in our investigation. It is important to remind that δ-AITX-Bcg1b presents the single N16D substitution in relation to its isoform δ-AITX-Bcg1a (see Table 1). The latter shows a much higher potency among the assayed channels. However, CGTX-II also presents a D16 amino acid (see Table 1), but its potency and selectivity are close to the observed for δ-AITX-Bcg1a. In that case, it is clear that the N16 amino acid alone should not be considered as a key determinant of the potency or activity of sea anemone peptides. In the work by Oliveira et al. [23], the selectivity of ATX-II

(see its primary sequence in Table 1) was Nav1.1–1.2 > 1.5 > 1.4 > 1.6 > 1.3, Dabrafenib ic50 while its isoform AFT-II (with an extra Gly at N-terminus and a single K36A substitution, in relation to ATX-II) was selective as Nav1.4 > 1.5 > 1.6 > 1.3–1.1 > 1.2. The toxin BcIII (more alike to CGTX-II) was assayed in that work, showing a preferential activity on Nav1.5–1.1 > 1.4–1.6 > 1.2–1.3. More recently, these three peptides were assayed in Nav1.7 and all of them showed a smaller potency in that channel [34], such as for CGTX-II, δ-AITX-Bcg1a and δ-AITX-Bcg1b here presented. The compilation of those

data, together with a summary of the dose–response curves in the present study, is shown in Fig. 4. Contrary to AFT-II and BcIII, none oxyclozanide of the toxins employed in this study showed some preference for binding to Nav1.4. Thus, it is clear that the selectivity of sea anemone type 1 toxins is variable, and consequently the surface of contact of each peptide should vary as well. Other authors tried to investigate this aspect [22]. They did a full alanine scanning of ATX-II (Av2) toxin, and found that some residues important for activity coincide, but many do not overlap with the contact surface of the structurally related peptide ApB [5], [10] and [31]. On the other hand, although differing only by N16D substitution, previous studies demonstrated that BgII (Asn) is much more potent than BgIII (Asp) (see Table 1) [6] and [28]. Consequently, this confirms that the role of each individual amino acid must be carefully examined for each toxin, and a single amino acid residue might not be as critical for binding on one isoform as for other. Very interestingly, our present data show that all the three toxins tested do not have a high preference for binding on Nav1.2 (the preferential target of ATX-II, one of the most potent sea anemone toxins). However, the supposed binding site (site 3) [8] of these type 1 sea anemone toxins in Nav1.1 is identical [23] and [30].

Porém, quanto maior o número de folículos medidos, menor foi a co

Porém, quanto maior o número de folículos medidos, menor foi a concordância entre os observadores. A ultrassonografia 3 D parece oferecer informação quantitativa sobre os ovários ligeiramente diferente do que a 2 D. Com a ultrassonografia 3 D, as imagens podem ser armazenadas

dentro de um período muito curto para ser avaliadas numa fase posterior. No entanto, quando usadas em classificações categóricas, as CFAs, tanto por ultrassonografia 2 D quanto pela 3 D, são suficientemente confiáveis para ser usadas como um teste diagnóstico e prognóstico. No estudo de Raine‐Fenning et al. (2003),17 usaram‐se dois observadores e três objetos diferentes: uma bola de tênis de mesa (ttb), um preservativo padrão parcialmente preenchido (elip) e um E7080 datasheet preservativo em forma de elefante (ele). Os objetos foram preenchidos com água e imersos em um meio fluido (mistura de água e glicerol). Cada observador adquiriu um conjunto de dados dos três objetos, de modo que havia duas aquisições de cada objeto, que totalizaram seis conjuntos de dados analisados tanto pelo método convencional de ultrassom 2 D como pela see more técnica mais recente de rotação, usada para calcular o volume manualmente pelos quatro graus diferentes de rotação (30°, 15°, 9° e 6°), tanto pelo plano transversal quanto pelo coronal. Apesar de ter havido um nível igualmente

elevado de confiança entre os dois observadores e entre os diferentes planos, o que aumenta a confiança dessas técnicas de cálculo de volume, houve também uma tendência à maior validação do volume com o uso da técnica de rotação em relação à técnica

convencional. Uma vantagem dessa última técnica é a capacidade Unoprostone de variar o número de planos usados para o cálculo do volume em diferentes objetos. O volume absoluto gerado na conclusão das medições convencionais é criticamente dependente da interpretação do observador de onde o objeto começa e termina. Isso muitas vezes é o aspecto mais difícil das medições dos volumes. Esse estudo definiu a técnica mais apropriada, em termos de confiabilidade, validade e tempo, para aplicar em estudos futuros, que é a técnica rotacional. Jayaprakasan et al. (2007)18 fizeram um trabalho para avaliar a confiabilidade interobservador da CFA com três técnicas e três observadores. Quarenta e uma mulheres com menos de 40 anos (média de 33,6) foram submetidas à investigação da infertilidade por meio de exames feitos com os métodos 2 D, 3 D e 3 D modo de inversão. A CFA foi feita em folículos que mediam 2‐10 mm de diâmetro. Todavia, não houve diferenças equivalentes entre os três diferentes graus de qualidade de imagem com os métodos 2 D e o 3 D multiplanar. Os resultados mostraram que os três observadores foram capazes de conseguir resultados semelhantes com cada uma das três técnicas de medição.

Consequently, the annual turnover ratio is

∼12:1, so that

Consequently, the annual turnover ratio is

∼12:1, so that all of the water within the reservoir is exchanged every month. However, in spite of this high turnover rate, large blooms of cyanobacteria occur every year, with no viable prospects for improving water quality beyond E7080 in vitro the introduction of seawater. Despite over 3 billion yen being invested every year to improve water quality in the reservoir, COD levels continue to rise, and remain far above the targeted value set by MAFF (5 mg/L; Fig. 8). Moreover, pH levels detected at station R1 and other locations range from 8 to 9, well above recommended levels for rice cultivation (pH 6.0–7.5, MAFF, 1971). The solubility of iron is significantly diminished under high pH conditions, resulting in iron deficiency

in rice crops grown under these conditions (Ponnameperuma, 1975). Furthermore, the salinity of the irrigation water drawn from the reservoir is also an obstacle to agriculture. As shown in Fig. 9, the salinity of the water at stations R2–R4 is too high for agricultural use, resulting in water from the reservoir being used only for rice cultivation on reclaimed land created before 1997. The salinity declines soon after the rainy season, but it gradually returns over time, likely due to the permeation of seawater. The only water used on the vegetable fields grown on land created by project is supplied from the mouth of the Honmyo River and by other nearby rivers. Water drained from the reservoir often contains large amounts of sediment, which carries with learn more it considerable amounts of MCs, which are exhausted into the surrounding bay. Even if the figures presented in Table 3 represent an overestimation due to variation in MC levels at different depths, the levels of MCs exhausted into the surrounding area have played a considerable part in the decline of the fishing industry throughout

the bay. It is possible that some MCs exhausted from the Isahaya Bay reservoir could be degraded by bacteria in the surrounding environment (Bourne et al., 1996, Ishii Tangeritin et al., 2004, Park et al., 2001, Chen et al., 2010 and Jiang et al., 2011). However, an additional report detailing the sedimentation of cyanotoxins (nodularin-R, and microcystin-LR) in the north Baltic Sea (Kankaanpää et al., 2009) supports the notion of MC accumulation in the local environment. In the present study, MCs were detected in the sediment throughout the year, indicating a clear limit to environmental degradation. Preliminary data from our laboratory suggest that the degradation rate of MCs in sediment is temperature-dependent, with almost no degradation seen at temperatures below 20 °C. This allows for MC levels to persist throughout the year, as the activity of MC-degrading enzymes is lost at temperatures where cyanobacteria are unable to multiply.

In fact, as I was examining the abdomen of the last such patient

In fact, as I was examining the abdomen of the last such patient I saw with these complaints, he looked up at me and said, “you know, Dr. Brandt, you are the first doctor who has touched me.” In addition to being embarrassed for our profession, I thought, as the kids of today say, “Oh, my God.” That patient’s comments prompted me to write this page on how to touch an abdomen. Of course, touch is preceded by inspection and after the patient has unclothed, inspection is performed for scars (trauma, surgery—either

laparotomy or laparoscopy), Trametinib concentration hyper- or hypopigmentation (radiation, melanoma, Addison’s disease, Kohlmeir-Degos disease), and asymmetry (hernias, organomegaly, masses). After touch, the examiner arrives upon the subject of this page: Gentle Stroking and Delicate Pinching. Most examiners, when pressing on the abdomen and eliciting pain, assume the tenderness arises within the abdominal cavity and fail to consider that it may be from an injured muscle, an irritated or entrapped nerve, hernia, rectus sheath hematoma, or even inflamed fat. Cyriax, in 1919, was the first to note this important observation that anterior abdominal wall pain may arise from structures other than

the underlying viscera. To distinguish intra- from extra-abdominal conditions, I suggest, after inspection, the following routine: (1) Begin with a very gentle stroking of the abdominal skin, using as light a touch as possible, passing rapidly from inferior to superior (left, middle, and right vertical striping) and GSK-3 assay then left to right (upper, middle, and lower horizontal striping), including all 9 anatomic Ureohydrolase regions of the abdomen (right and left hypochondriac, lumbar, and iliac, and epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric). Hyperalgesia or dysesthesia can thus be elicited and reveals any area with abnormal sensation or innervation. This technique alone can pick up the

early stages of shingles, a nerve entrapment syndrome or neuropathy, or can even identify an intraabdominal pathologic condition with peritoneal irritation. (2) I then follow this gentle stroking with a deeper stroke as if I were creating a propagated wave form with my finger. This enables me to determine the texture of the skin and muscle; is it smooth, granular, lumpy, freely mobile, intact? I then proceed to gently pinch my fingers together, thereby grabbing a small pannus of fat; I gently squeeze it, again in each of the 9 anatomic regions of the abdomen; how else can one diagnose painful fat syndrome? (3) Now I will probe more deeply, again mindful of the anatomic regions. The edges of the liver and possibly the spleen are found along the way and noted for their palpable characteristics such as firmness, smoothness, and nodularity.

4 × 106 seedlings per hectare The sandy loam soil [Typic Fluvaqu

4 × 106 seedlings per hectare. The sandy loam soil [Typic Fluvaquent, Entisols (US taxonomy)] contains 12.58 g kg− 1

of organic material and 75.19, 45.52 and 99.3 mg kg− 1 of available N, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. Plot dimensions were 4 × 5 m and plots see more were separated by an alley 1 m wide with plastic film inserted into the soil. Each of the treatment had three plots as repetitions in a complete randomized block. The treatment plots received 240 kg ha− 1 at the booting stage. The control plots received no N at the booting stage. All other field conditions and cultivation managements were kept uniform. During the period of wheat anthesis, the anthesis dates were recorded by dotting the glumes and hanging time tags on the wheat plants. Caryopses that bloomed on the same day but developed on different days for the two treatments were chosen for experimentation. Samples were harvested at 15 and 45 DAA. First, 2 mm cubic blocks were

cut by cross-sectioning from wheat caryopses harvested at 15 DAA. The specimens were then fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% paraformaldehyde in a 0.05 mol L− 1 cacodylate buffer solution (pH 7.2) and post-fixation treatment in 1% osmic acid in a 0.15 mol L− 1 sodium cacodylate buffer solution (pH 7.2) for 3 h was applied. The blocks were washed, dehydrated through an ethanol series of 30%–100%, and embedded Apitolisib cell line in Spurr’s low-viscosity embedding medium. Sections of 1 μm thick were cut with a glass knife on a Leica Ultracut R (Leica Microsystems, Inc., Wetzlar, Germany), and stained with 0.5% toluidine blue O for 5 min. The sections were visualized and photographed with a Leica Dmls microscope (Leica Microsystems, Inc.). To reflect the nature of caryopsis structure, the findings were compared and confirmed in numerous sections made from

developing grains. Five representative regions of transverse sections of the endosperm were observed for every specimen: subaleurone in dorsal endosperm (SDE), center in dorsal endosperm (CDE), modified aleurone (MA), subaleurone in ventral endosperm (SVE), and center in ventral endosperm (CVE), using three replications Clomifene and 20 micrographs representing ten blocks from different regions. Mature grains were harvested at 45 DAA and fractured by applying slight pressure on the middle of the caryopsis with a razor blade. The sample thickness was ~ 3 mm. Caryopses were mounted with the fractured surface facing upwards on a specimen stub and sputter-coated with gold before viewing with a scanning electron microscope (XL30 ESEM, Philips, The Netherlands) at 20 kV to observe the distribution of SGs. The samples at 15 DAA were used to determine the numbers and percentages of SGs. SGs observed in the image were first marked with a specified color using Photoshop CS4 software (Adobe, U.S.A.) and the image was then analyzed to determine the numbers and percentages of SGs using software Image-Pro Plus 6.0 (Media Cybernetics, U.S.A.).

2 1 59 requires either NAD(P)+ In KEGG, these three are also reg

2.1.59 requires either NAD(P)+. In KEGG, these three are also regarded as the same type of reaction in terms of the RCLASS entries involved, and are grouped into four orthologue groups: K00134 and K10705

for EC 1.2.1.12, K05298 for EC 1.2.1.13 and K00150 for EC 1.2.1.59. Many enzymes are multi-functional. In this case, we give multiple EC, R, RP and RC numbers to the corresponding K number. For example, bisphosphoglycerate mutase is given an orthology K01837, three EC numbers 5.4.2.1, 5.4.2.4 and 3.1.3.13, three R numbers R01518 (2-phospho-d-glycerate=3-phospho-d-glycerate), R01662 (3-phospho-d-glycerol phosphate=2,3-bisphospho-d-glycerate) find more and R01516 (2,3-bisphospho-d-glycerate+H2O=3-phospho-d-glycerate+orthophosphate) and the corresponding RP and RC numbers. There is another known enzyme named phosphoglycerate mutase, which has narrower substrate specificity (only catalyzing R01518), which is given orthology check details identification K01834. There are many cases where an enzyme is involved the catalysis of a complex series of reaction steps. For example,

fatty acid biosynthesis contains many enzyme complexes, only acetyl CoA carboxylase is a separate enzyme. To make matters more complicated, the complexes are different dependent on taxonomy. Animal-type fatty acid synthase (EC 2.3.1.85) consists of a polypeptide, given identification K00665. Fungi type (EC 2.3.1.86) consists of two subunits (K00667 and K00668). Bacterial type is separated into at least two proteins (K11533 and K11628), of which the latter has EC 2.3.1.111 but the former does not have any official EC number. There are many other complicated examples; EC 1.2.7.1 (pyruvate synthase) forms an enzyme complex consisting of four peptides porA, porB, porD and porG. We gave them identifiers K00169, K00170, K00171 and

K00172, respectively, and link each to EC 1.2.7.1. EC numbers classify enzymes by function; therefore they contain many different sequences. As a result, some EC numbers have become highly variable in terms of their reaction patterns and sequence families. The former type of EC numbers, catalyzing many different reactions, include cytochrome P450 (EC 1.14.14.1), glutathionine transferase (EC 2.5.1.18), monoamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.4), enoyl-CoA hydratase (EC 4.2.1.17), alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1), fatty acid synthase in animal and yeast (EC 2.3.1.85 and mTOR inhibitor 86, respectively), aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3), PTS enzyme II (EC 2.7.1.69), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.3) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.35). The latter type of EC numbers, involving many different orthologues computationally generated from KEGG GENES, include NADH dehydrogenase (EC 1.6.5.3), ATP synthase (EC 3.6.3.14), DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7), serine/threonine protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.1), peptidylprolyl isomerase (EC 5.2.1.8), PTS enzyme II (2.7.1.69), enoyl-CoA hydratase (EC 4.2.1.17), RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6), DNA-methyltransferase (2.1.1.