In HIV-coinfected patients delta virus may further accelerate the

In HIV-coinfected patients delta virus may further accelerate the progression of liver disease [148]. For these reasons, patients with delta virus are candidates for treatment. However, evidence of treatment activity has been mostly obtained in HIV-negative patients. Interferon has been shown to be active [149,150]. In one study,

72 weeks of treatment with pegylated interferon alpha-2b was associated with sustained virological response (SVR) in about 20% of cases, and ribavirin did not add to this benefit [150]. There is a successful case report of the use of pegylated interferon alpha-2b for 72 weeks in a patient with HIV coinfection on HAART with undetectable HIV RNA [151]. In an earlier study, where standard interferon was used in 16 HIV-infected patients with HDV, the results were poor [152]. Palbociclib solubility dmso There are early efficacy data on tenofovir

use [153]. Test for delta virus in all patients with hepatitis B (III). There is now widespread recognition of the potential morbidity and mortality associated with HIV and HCV coinfection. Overall, the prevalence of HCV in the general UK population is estimated to be approximately 0.44% [154] but the rate varies by area and population and should be considered as a minimum. The highest risk groups for HCV infection are IDUs and people with bleeding disorders such as haemophilia [154]. Other risk groups Selleck LBH589 include sexual partners of injectors, prisoners, sex workers and children of HCV-infected

mothers. There may also be an increased rate in people who have had treatment or were born abroad and healthcare workers subject to sharps injury [154]. Although heterosexual transmission of HCV is uncommon, the higher levels of HCV RNA seen in the setting of HIV infection may facilitate transmission [154,155], particularly in the presence of other sexually transmitted infections such as infectious C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) syphilis. This is of particular concern in the light of the recent rise of syphilis cases within the HIV community [1,3,156–161]. There have been reports from several European countries, Australia and the USA of hepatitis C transmission within the homosexual HIV community linked to possible sexual transmission and/or use of noninjecting recreational drugs, particularly snorting cocaine. The prevalence of HCV infection in HIV-positive individuals is higher than in the general population but varies among clinics according to risk factors for HIV acquisition. 5.1.2.1 The influence of HCV on HIV infection. HCV may have a deleterious effect on HIV progression. The Swiss HIV Cohort study and others demonstrated that HCV infection was independently associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS or death, despite a similar use of antiretroviral therapies in the coinfected group compared with the group infected with HIV alone [162–164].

Paradoxically, one might predict that a decrement in the fidelity

Paradoxically, one might predict that a decrement in the fidelity of the coupling between these

systems would actually lead to better sensitivity to image statistics at more peripheral locations, a notion that has often been applied to autistic individuals (see below). Regardless, given that individuals with autism exhibit more variable and inaccurate eye movements (Goldberg et al., 2002; Takarae et al., 2004; PD0332991 Stanley-Cary et al., 2011), a possible explanation for these inaccuracies to clearly visible target stimuli could well relate to decrements in the temporal coupling of covert attention and overt movements. If so, early cortical representations as established within the lateral connections could be less influenced by these processes in ASD. It is noteworthy that the thesis that altered visual perception in ASD might be a function of atypical neural connectivity in early visual cortices has been previously invoked (Bertone et al.,

2005). Based on psychophysical results pointing to reduced discriminability for second-order contrast gratings despite increased discriminability for simple first-order gratings, these authors this website concluded that lateral inhibition must be enhanced in ASD. Neuroanatomical studies also support the notion that cortical representations are altered in autism. There are reports of microstructural differences in several parts of neocortex. In post-mortem studies, it has been noted that brains of individuals with ASD exhibit a neuronal microstructure consistent with smaller cortical minicolumns in sensory and higher-order cortices (Casanova et al., 2010). Minicolumns can be conceptualized as an interconnected, vertical group

of 80–100 neurons that exhibit similar response characteristics (Mountcastle, 1997). In V1, many of these minicolumns are thought to consist of cells that are responsive to a given spatial orientation, while neighboring minicolumns will prefer another orientation. Minicolumns have been reported to contain fewer cells in ASD, but at the same time, the number of neurons is comparable due to a concomitant increase in the overall number of minicolumns in brains of autistic individuals (Casanova et al., 2002). Vasopressin Receptor Even though these studies examined the number of neurons in cortex and not the number of connections, it is very likely that the observed differences in neuronal arrangement are related to, or even caused by, changes in lateral connections. However, as every minicolumn is thought to represent a receptive field (Buxhoeveden & Casanova, 2002), it is conceivable that there is an increase in the number of receptive fields in different cortical areas in ASD. Therefore, the observed increase in response to peripheral visual stimulation could also be explained by an increased number of receptive units per area of peripheral visual space.

The distribution of the sialic acid-specific SSS transporter gene

The distribution of the sialic acid-specific SSS transporter genes is interesting as they form the only group of bacterial sialic acid transporter genes that are widespread in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. While no member from Gram-positive bacteria has been

experimentally characterized as yet, in S. aureus and C. perfringens, they are the only genes encoding sialic acid transporters of the described families and may thus be the sole route for sialic acid uptake in these organisms. The physiological function of sialic acid transport in STm has not yet been defined, but analysis of its genome reveals the presence of all the genes required for sialic acid catabolism in E. coli, where sialic acid is a nutrient Ion Channel Ligand Library in vivo (Chang et al., 2004), thus suggesting a similar catabolic role in STm. Sodium dependence is a common characteristic of SSS transporters and we demonstrated qualitatively that sodium was indeed required for high activity of STM1128. This bacterium also contains a nanT orthologue in addition to STM1128, whose function has not been studied, but the reason why STm has evolved to use a sodium-coupled in addition to a proton-coupled transporter for sialic acid uptake is not clear. Following our observation of an SSS transporter that recognizes Neu5Ac, there are now five classes of transporters present in bacteria that have been

experimentally characterized as being able to recognize this compound selleck kinase inhibitor (Vimr & Troy, 1985; Allen et al., 2005; Post et al., 2005; Severi et al., 2005; Brigham et al., 2009; Thompson et al., 2009). While many bacteria have a single transporter from one of these Sorafenib purchase classes, there are now clear examples in silico of bacteria that are very likely to have two different sialic acid transporters from different families, including STm (Table 1), questioning the respective roles of these transporters in

the same organism. We used our complementation system to compare the properties of three of these transporters in vivo. When we examined the apparent Ks for sialic acid uptake for the different transporters, the TRAP transporter did have the highest affinity (Kelly & Thomas, 2001), but this was not significantly different from the other transporters. This was a surprising finding as we expected the SBP-dependent transporter to have a significantly higher affinity. Given that the outer membrane (OM) can rate-limit the passage of small molecules (Nikaido & Vaara, 1985), we introduced in our strains the imp mutation, which is believed to increase the general permeability of the OM (Sampson et al., 1989; Sperandeo et al., 2008), but again we observed no difference among the transporters (data not shown). That the transporters were not distinguished on the basis of apparent Ks could be due to the heterologous nature of expression, for example the lipid composition of the host inner membrane may affect transport function.

Natural enediyne antibiotics are the most potent antineoplastic a

Natural enediyne antibiotics are the most potent antineoplastic agents that have ever been discovered. However, enediynes have shown delayed toxicity, limiting their use in clinical applications (Ajoy, 2008). Neocarzinostatin (NCS), a nine-membered enediyne compound produced by S. carzinostaticus, is the most studied among the chromoprotein type enediyne antibiotics. It selleck chemical consists of a 1 : 1 complex of a nonpeptide chromophore (NCS chromophore) and a peptide apoprotein (Apo-NCS). The NCS chromophore consists of three different moieties: a nine-membered enediyne core, deoxyamino

sugar, and naphthoic acid (NA) (Edo et al., 1985) (Fig. 1). NA moiety of an NCS chromophore plays a key role in binding the NCS chromophore to its apoprotein NcsA. This association is indispensable for protection, stabilization, and transportation of a bioactive NCS chromophore to its DNA target (Urbaniak et al., 2002; Caddick et al., 2006). Also, it intercalates into DNA, hence positioning the NCS chromophore into the minor groove (Luo et al., 2008). While several enediyne members such as maduropeptin, calicheamicin possess only an aromatized ring 6-methylsalicylic acid, nine-membered enediynes such as kedarcidin and NCS harbor NA moiety. Interestingly, one of the nonenediyne

compounds, azinomycin, also contains this moiety. In both cases, NA moiety is biosynthesized from an iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene (Fig. 1c), where PKS-post Selleck Verteporfin genes such as hydroxylase, O-methyltransferase genes continue to build the final product of NA moiety in their structure (Sthapit et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2008). Initially, four genes, ncsB (naphthoic acid synthase), ncsB1 (O-methyltransferase), ncsB2 (CoA ligase), and ncsB3 (cytochrome P450) were proposed to be involved in the biosynthesis of NA moiety in the NCS chromophore (Fig. 1a and b) (Liu et al., 2005). In our previous study, heterologous expression of ncsB

in Streptomyces lividans TK24 (Sthapit et al., 2004) resulted in Phospholipase D1 the accumulation of 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid (1a) and a shunt product, 2-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1-naphthoic acid (1b) (Fig. 1b). Likewise, in vivo and in vitro functional characterization of NcsB2 has shown it to be a CoA ligase that catalyzes the activation of 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid (3) into its CoA-ester (Cooke et al., 2007). Although ncsB1 has been shown to catalyze the methylation of 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methyl-1-naphthoic acid (2) (Luo et al., 2008), hydroxylation at the C-7 position of NA by ncsB3 is still not clear. Therefore, the elucidation of a biosynthetic pathway of NA moiety would present a promising opportunity to produce novel analogues of NCS that reduces its dose-limiting toxicity or alterations that may increase NCS lipophilicity and stability.

SCS is consistent with Shapiro’s (1968) definition of a placebo,

SCS is consistent with Shapiro’s (1968) definition of a placebo, in that the participant does not know which treatment is being applied, and the treatment probably has no effect on the person. While there may be quibbles over specific deliveries of TMS or tCS (such as clicking from the coil, or itching at the scalp), SCS could fairly be called a placebo, especially if these factors were identical in active and sham sessions. But what about OAS? The key is the word ‘specific’: if the stimulation is delivered to a brain area that is known (inasmuch as this selleck chemicals is possible) not to be involved in a task, the stimulation might

indeed be considered a placebo. However, ACS differs markedly from the usual medical idea of a placebo, in that the stimulation is being delivered somewhere. While the task-related brain area may be unaffected in the OAS condition, nevertheless the person’s brain tissue is being affected in some way. While this website the stimulation levels used in most experimental settings are well within physiologically ‘safe’ limits (Jahanshahi et al., 1997; Bikson et al., 2009; Datta et al., 2009), it is still possible that small changes in neural excitability could induce deleterious effects. There are some cases in which an active control is necessary. For example, high-intensity tACS around the frontal or occipital areas is likely to cause visual disturbances due

to stimulation of the retina or visual cortex (Kanai et al., 2008; Schutter & Hortensius, 2010). In this case the participant is always aware of the stimulated conditions. It would therefore be sensible to choose two separate electrode montages, with one over the target brain area and the other over a neutral location that would produce the same visual sensations. However, stimulating one area of the scalp is likely to feel very different from stimulating another: even a naïve participant will realize that TMS over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has different sensory consequences

from vertex stimulation. A primary purpose of a control condition in an experiment or trial is to show the specificity of the effect to the primary condition; therefore, the control must replicate as closely as possible the ‘active’ condition but Montelukast Sodium the hypothesized brain area should not be stimulated. In this view, OAS gives the fairest comparison of active with sham conditions, as the only difference between the conditions is the position of the electrodes or stimulating coil. We recommend that active control brain stimulation be used as a last resort, and that appropriate safety checks are employed. First, the impact of the control stimulation on the brain should be understood, ideally through current density modelling or through relating the planned stimulation parameters to known physiological measures.

326) including 23 cases presented in children under 12 Immigrant

326) including 23 cases presented in children under 12. Immigrants (recently arrived and VFR) were younger than SD-208 manufacturer the other groups of travelers (p < 0.001). Epidemiological data in the different study groups are shown in Table 1. The most prevalent species was P. falciparum (143 cases, 84.1%), acquired mostly in Africa (97.9%); one case was acquired in India, one in Laos, and one in Ecuador. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 20 cases (11.8%), 6 of them acquired in Africa, 3 cases in Asia (India), and 3 cases in South America (1 in Ecuador, 1 in Brazil, and 1 in Peru). Infections produced by Plasmodium ovale (four cases, 2.4%) and Plasmodium malariae (two cases, 1.2%) were always acquired in sub-Saharan Africa.

One mixed infection due to P. falciparum and P. malariae was observed (0.6%). It was acquired in Equatorial Guinea. Parasitemia levels were studied in 144 cases: it was low (<1%) in 20.8%, moderate (1%–5%) in 58.3%, and high (>5%) in 20.8%. All cases with high parasitemia were caused by P. falciparum. Samples from five recent immigrants with negative microscopic examination were diagnosed with P. falciparum infection

using PCR assay. Molecular diagnosis contributed to identify Plasmodium species in another three patients with low parasitemia, infected with P. ovale (two) and P. vivax (one). Fever was the main symptom and was selleck screening library present in 93.5% of the cases, but it was less frequent in recently arrived immigrants group (p < 0.001). In fact, four of these immigrants were apyretic during the whole episode, and consulting referring macroscopic hematuria, generalized edema

because of a nephrotic syndrome, parotid tumor and abdominal Cyclooxygenase (COX) pain with splenomegaly, and asthenia linked to severe anemia (hemoglobin 5.7 g/dL). The most common laboratory abnormalities were thrombocytopenia (64.1%), presented more frequently in sailors than in the other groups, and anemia (34.9%), that was presented less frequently in tourists and business travelers. Clinical presentation and laboratory findings are summarized in Table 2. The most frequent regimens used were based on quinine, usually combined with doxycycline. Other combinations used, mainly in children, included: quinine + clindamicin, quinine + trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and quinine + sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine. Treatment regimens used are summarized in Table 3. Almost 80% (77.6%) of patients were admitted to hospitals for treatment and control, and outpatients accounted for the 22.4%. However, oral administration was preferred in at least 87 (51.2%) patients. One strain of P. vivax imported from Asia presented tolerance to primaquine, and it was necessary to use higher doses of the drug in two different times for the patient treatment regimen. At least one indicator of severe malaria was present in 39 cases (22.9%), of those 19 (11.2%) required attention in critical care units. Renal failure (74.4%), followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome (33.3%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (33.

DOT is regarded

as the gold standard for delivering TB tr

DOT is regarded

as the gold standard for delivering TB treatment, but it may not be possible to deliver all elements of the DOT package. Witnessed buy Vincristine supervision of treatment may be impracticable and it is important to remember that patient-centred management is the cornerstone of treatment success. We recommend that DOT be used in all cases of MDR-TB. Patients with TB, with or without HIV infection, who are failing treatment or who relapse despite therapy pose particular management problems and should be referred to clinical colleagues who have expertise in the management of relapse and treatment failure, especially if taking HAART concomitantly. Every hospital/trust should have a policy for the control and prevention of TB. Specific consideration should be given to prevention of transmission of TB to and from immunosuppressed patients. Further guidance is contained in [4]. Worldwide, it is estimated that 14.8% of all new TB cases in adults are attributable to HIV infection. This proportion is much greater in Africa, where 79% of all TB/HIV coinfections are found. In 2007, 456 000 people globally died of HIV-associated TB [5]. All patients with TB, regardless of their perceived risk of HIV Alisertib supplier infection, should be offered an HIV test. In the United Kingdom,

an increasing number of patients with TB are coinfected with HIV. In 2003, 8.3% of adults with TB were HIV coinfected [6]. The proportion is higher in London, with coinfection rates of 17–25% [7]. In HIV coinfection the clinical and radiographic presentation of TB may be atypical. Compared with the immune-competent population, TB/HIV-infected patients with active pulmonary TB are more MYO10 likely to have normal chest radiographs or to have sputum that is smear negative but culture positive [8–10]. The clinician caring for HIV-infected patients therefore needs to have a high index of suspicion for TB in symptomatic individuals, especially those born abroad. As the investigation and treatment of both TB and HIV infection require specialist knowledge, it is mandatory to involve specialists in HIV, respiratory and/or infectious

diseases. These guidelines update the BHIVA guidelines from 2005 and are designed to provide a clinical framework applicable to adults in the UK coinfected with HIV and TB. These guidelines do not cover children. They do not provide advice on HIV testing in adults with newly diagnosed TB. They are based on the evidence available, but some recommendations have to rely on expert opinion until further data are published. These guidelines should be used in conjunction with: NICE: Tuberculosis: Clinical diagnosis and management of TB, and measures for its prevention and control, 2006 [1]. Treatment of TB benefits the individual and also the community. The aim of treatment is: to cure the patient of TB; The quality of any investigation is related to the quality of the specimen and the clinical detail provided within the request.

490) for pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme The upregulate

490) for pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme. The upregulated genes included pgk (SMU.361) for phosphoglycerate click here kinase, adhAB (SMU.127/8) for acetoin dehydrogenase, pdhAB (SMU.1422/3)

for pyruvate dehydrogenase, adhE (SMU.148) for alcohol-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and frdC (SMU.1410) for fumarate reductase. Malolactic enzyme MleS catalyzes decarboxylation of malic acid, yielding lactate. It was recently shown that malolactic fermentation is a major system for alkali production and that deficiency of MleS as well as MleP in S. mutans resulted in loss of protection against acid killing (Sheng et al., 2010). In addition, the malolactic fermentation system was also found to be protective against oxidative stress and starvation. Glutathione reductase, GshR, is known to play a significant role in defense against oxidative stress in both eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, and similar results were also reported in S. mutans (Yamamoto et al., 1999). Downregulation of mleSP and gshR will certainly have an impact on the ability of the deficient mutants to survive oxidative stress, which could at least in part attribute to the observed defects in tolerance against MV and H2O2, and consequently to the decreased ability to form biofilms by TW239. Pyruvate

formate lyase-activating enzyme (PflC or Act) is shown to be the sole enzyme able to activate pyruvate formate lyase (Yamamoto et al., 2000), which is known to be highly sensitive to oxygen and play a critical role in sugar fermentation, ATP synthesis and NAD+ and/or NADH recycling under anaerobic conditions ABT 199 (Yamada et al., 1985). Acetoin dehydrogenase (AdhAB), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PdhAB), alcohol-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AdhE) and fumarate reductase (FrdC) are all key enzymes in heterofermentation, ATP synthesis and

NAD+ and/or NADH regeneration. Unlike S. aureus, but similar to B. subtilis (Larsson et al., 2005; Pagels et al., 2010), the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldh was not among the genes aberrantly expressed in TW239. Coupled with the increased expression Dichloromethane dehalogenase of adhAB, pdhAB, adhE and frdC and the downregulation of pflC in response to Rex-deficiency, the data presented here also support an important role for Rex in the regulation of glycolysis and acid production by S. mutans in the plaque. Recently, it has been shown that exposure of S. mutans to aeration causes a substantial alteration in the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress (e.g. nox for NADH oxidase), energy metabolism and fermentation (e.g. pdhAB and adhE) and biofilm formation (e.g. gftB) (Ahn et al., 2007). Cross-referencing of these two transcriptional profiles (aeration vs. rex mutation) revealed that of the genes identified in TW239, 11 (10 upregulated and one downregulated, respectively) were also found to be consistently altered in S. mutans stressed by aeration (Table 2 and Table S1), indicating that Rex-mediated regulation could be part of the pathway that S.

Gene replacement was confirmed by sequencing One Spcs clone poss

Gene replacement was confirmed by sequencing. One Spcs clone possessing the desired mutation was designated KD1113. Total

RNA was prepared from S. mutans strains as described previously (Shibata et al., 1999) and cDNA was generated via reverse transcription using Multi-Scribe reverse transcriptase and a random primer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RNA samples lacking reverse transcriptase were included as controls to ensure that the results were not due to DNA contamination. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using the StepOne real-time PCR system (Applied Biosystems) in a final volume of 20 μL containing 10 ng cDNA, 10 μL 2 × Quantitect SYBR Green PCR master mix (Qiagen), and 10 pmol each primer (Table S1; Korithoski et al., 2007). PCR conditions were 95 °C for 15 min, followed by 40 cycles of 94 °C for Veliparib datasheet 15 s, 60 °C for 30 s, and 72 °C for 30 s. All data were normalized against to 16S rRNA gene as an internal standard. The fold-change in expression was determined using the 2−ΔΔCt method (Livak

& Schmittgen, 2001). Total RNA was isolated from UA159 as described in real-time RT-PCR analysis and then purified using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen). Subsequent procedures, including sample labeling and hybridization for DNA microarray, were performed by NimbleGen Systems Inc. (Madison, WI) and GSK2118436 GeneFrontier Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). Twenty perfectly matching 24-mer probes for individual genes were used

for hybridization. DNA probes Calpain were amplified from S. mutans UA159 genomic DNA using IGR793F and IGR793R primers (Table S1). PCR products were separated on 2% agarose gels and isolated. DNA probes were 3′-labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) using the DIG Gel Shift Kit 2nd Generation (Roche, Mannheim, Germany), with minor modifications according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Briefly, DNA probes (3.85 pmol) were mixed with 1 μL of 1 mM digoxigenin-11-ddUTP (DIG-ddUTP), 400 U of terminal transferase, 4 μL of 25 mM CoCl2, 4 μL of 5 × labeling buffer (1 M potassium cacodylate, 125 mM Tris-HCl, 0.125% bovine serum albumin; pH 6.6), and 10 μL sterile water (total volume 20 μL), and incubated at 37 °C for 15 min. Purified protein (500 ng) and 31 fmol digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe were incubated at room temperature for 15 min in a reaction mixture containing 20 mM Hepes (pH 7.6), 1 mM EDTA, 10 mM (NH4)2 SO4, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.2% (w/v) Tween 20, 30 mM KCl, 1 μg poly [d(I-C)], and 100 ng Poly l-lysine. Nucleoprotein complexes were resolved on 6% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels at 150 V and then transferred to a nylon membrane (ATTO, Tokyo, Japan) for 30 min at 400 mA. The membrane was rinsed briefly in washing buffer [0.1 M maleic acid, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.

A positive reaction was indicated by a colour change from violet

A positive reaction was indicated by a colour change from violet to sky blue (Figs 2c, 3b and 4c). The LAMP reaction with HNB could also be performed in a 96-well microplate (Goto et al., 2009) and would be helpful for high-throughput DNA detection. Meanwhile, the positive reactions by self-trial were seen as a ladder-like pattern on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, verifying the results of the visual detection with HNB (Figs 2b and 4b). The detection limit of P. sojae using the three methods was 10 pg μL−1 (Fig. 4).

This is in accordance with two reports on LAMP methods used to detect Phytophthora spp. (Tomlinson et al., 2007, Z-VAD-FMK molecular weight 2010). Moreover, it has been reported that the LAMP reaction might be facilitated by the addition of loop forward and backward primers (Nagamine et al., 2002). In the present study, we could not identify a suitable loop forward primer, so we only used the loop backward primer to accelerate

the reaction (Table 1). This improved the reaction time by approximately 10-fold (data not shown). In the field trial, we collected 130 diseased soybean tissues and residues. All samples were inspected by LAMP, PCR, and a leaf disk-baiting method for comparison (Table 2). Compared with the other methods, the newly developed A3aPro-LAMP significantly improved the detection efficiency. Thus, the A3aPro-LAMP assay developed in this study can be used for the rapid diagnosis of P. sojae KU-60019 order in plants and in production fields. This, in turn, many could make it possible to control the dispersion of P. sojae and increase Phytophthora-free soybean production. This research was supported by the National Department Public Benefit Research Foundation (No. 200903004), the National ‘863’ Program (2012AA101501), the ‘948’ project (2010-C17) and Chinese National Science Foundation Committee project (3-20). We thank Michael D. Coffey from University of California Riverside for providing us with an isolate of Phytophthora vignae. “
“The EngA protein is a conserved and essential

bacterial GTPase of largely enigmatic function. While most investigations of EngA have suggested a role in ribosome assembly, the protein has also been implicated in diverse elements of physiology including chromosome segregation, cell division, and cell cycle control. Here, we have probed additional phenotypes related to ribosome biogenesis on depletion of EngA in Escherichia coli to better understand its role in the cell. Depletion of EngA resulted in cold-sensitive growth and stimulation of a ribosomal rRNA promoter, both phenotypes associated with the disruption of ribosome biogenesis in bacteria. Among antibiotics that inhibit translation, depletion of EngA resulted in sensitization to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics. EngA bound the alarmone ppGpp with equally high affinity as it bound GDP. These data offer additional support for a role in ribosome biogenesis for EngA, possibly in maturation of the A-site of the 50S subunit.