, 2009) Streptococcus mutans is an opportunistic pathogen consid

, 2009). Streptococcus mutans is an opportunistic pathogen considered as one of the principle etiological

agents of dental caries. Natural genetic transformation of this bacterium was shown to be modulated by a quorum sensing (QS) signaling system comprised of a ComDE two component signaling system, which responds to a peptide signaling molecule designated the competence stimulating peptide (CSP) (Li et al., 2001). In addition to eliciting the competence phenotype, the CSP signaling pathway also contributes to proper biofilm formation, bacteriocin production and stress Alectinib tolerance in S. mutans (Senadheera & Cvitkovitch, 2008). Intriguingly, the CSP-induced genetic Selleckchem SB431542 transformation pathway also modulates cellular lysis in a fraction of the population in S. mutans cultures (Qi et al., 2005; Perry et al., 2009). Development of genetic competence is directly correlated with activation of an alternate sigma factor, ComX, which depends on ComE activity and that of another regulatory protein, ComR that responds to an internalized signaling peptide called XIP (Mashburn-Warren et al., 2010). Recently, it was demonstrated that ComX was

expressed only in a fraction of the CSP-induced population, which resulted in the bifurcation of the population into fractions undergoing competence or cell death (Mashburn-Warren et al., 2010; Lemme et al., 2011). Although transcriptome analysis has shown the regulation of nearly 240 genes by ComX (Perry et al., 2009), most of these putative “late competence

genes” modulating competence and cell lysis remain uncharacterized to date. Here, we studied a ComX-regulated gene designated the competence induced protein A (cinA) in S. mutans. Recently, Okinaga et al. (2010) showed that the HdrRM system regulated expression of cinA via ComX in S. mutans. While cinA’s putative functions have not been closely examined in S. mutans, in Streptococcus pneumoniae, its ortholog belongs to the ComX-activated “late competence” Etofibrate regulon (Masure et al., 1998; Mortier-Barriere et al., 1998). In pneumococci, cinA is part of the rec locus, which includes recA that facilitates homologous recombination between single- and double-stranded DNA during genetic transformation (Kowalczykowski, 1994; Camerini-Otero & Hsieh, 1995). While CinA in S. pneumoniae was shown to facilitate transport of RecA to the membrane during genetic transformation (Masure et al., 1998), studies in Bacillus subtilis suggested that CinA is not specific to competence, but instead is a nucleoid-associated protein that serves a general role in cells entering stationary phase (Kaimer & Graumann, 2010). Here we report that cinA transcription is modulated by ComX in response to CSP, and that cinA is required for optimal genetic transformation in S. mutans.

By contrast, DLT3829 was predicted to play a role in light sensin

By contrast, DLT3829 was predicted to play a role in light sensing and to modulate the virulence of Xcc (under weak light). The four light-signalling components (XC_1036, XC_2324, XC_1476 and XC_3829) were confirmed in virulence assays and showed

that see more Xcc may exhibit modified virulence in response to lighting conditions. PYP, GAF and LOV/PAS domains are structurally similar and involved in cellular signalling, such as light for example. As these are domains with a highly conserved structure, SST-based clustering analysis can play a very crucial role in detecting protein functions, and several functional clusters were obtained by comparison of the SSTs of all these domains (Fig. 1c). Several Xcc PAS domains were predicted to have similar functions to the interior known PAS domains of a cluster, so that cluster I, II and IV domains were predicted to be involved in blue light sensing/signalling, while

two others (marked with pink or red shading in Fig. 1c) were thought to be involved in oxygen and red light signalling, respectively. In this way, several PYP and GAF domains may also be involved in light signalling. A total of 13 PAS proteins of Xcc involved in light signalling were identified with three series of tests Talazoparib in vitro (bacterial growth, virulence and motility) in this study, and five of 13 PAS proteins were GGDEF-characterized proteins (XC_1036, XC_1476, XC_2324, XC_3829 and XC_4313), the c-di-GMP signalling of which has been summarized in previous studies (Chang et al., 2001; Ryan et al., 2007; Hengge, 2009). In addition, GAF domains, which resemble the structure of the PAS domain, are potential light-sensing modules (Ho et al., 2000; Su & Lagarias, 2007) and were found in two (XC_2324 and XC_4313) of 13 PAS proteins, so that both PAS proteins still need to be

detected for functional confirmation of the PAS or GAF domain. XC_2324 was involved in red/far-red and oxygen signalling in the present research and was closely involved in the virulence of Xcc, which was also tested in Ryan’s research (Ryan et al., 2007). In addition, the results of research by Chang and colleagues indicated that binding of molecular oxygen to the PdeA1 of Acetobacter xylinum, which PAS-domain Carteolol HCl structure of the PdeA1 is very similar to XC_2324, modulates its enzymatic activity in cyclic di-GMP degradation (Chang et al., 2001). So, it remains to be determined whether XC_2324 is regulated by red/far-red light or oxygen produced by red/far-red light illumination or both. This work was supported by the Programme for State Key Laboratories, Ministry of Science and Technology of China. C.Z.H. was supported by Start-up Funding of Hainan University. “
“The genus Pycnoporus forms a group of four species known especially for producing high redox potential laccases suitable for white biotechnology.

(2009) have shown is required for maturation of the S-layer, but

(2009) have shown is required for maturation of the S-layer, but that is not essential for virulence. Of the two proteins classified as ABC transporters, neither conformed to the expected architecture for such a protein, namely, a leader

peptide containing an N- and C-domain completely lacking an intervening hydrophobic domain, in addition to a double-glycine motif N-terminal of the signal peptide cleavage site. All the other ‘transport’ proteins identified contained a significant hydrophobic domain between the N- and the C-domain of the predicted signal peptide, in addition to a number of other motifs usually associated with the twin arginine translocation or Sec secretion pathways. None of the 23 proteins contained any C-terminus cell wall anchor motifs commonly found in Gram-positive bacteria,

such as LPxTG, NPQTN or TLxTC (Dramsi et al., 2005; Desvaux et al., 2006). As in our previous work, we used the pathway reconstruction Dorsomorphin molecular weight tool biocyc (Karp Tofacitinib molecular weight et al., 2005) to analyse pathways inferred from our proteomics dataset. The snapshot of C. difficile metabolism presented here reflects the nutritional complexity of BHI broth, which contains glucose, proteose peptone and bovine BHI solids. We could, therefore, reconstruct a number of key central metabolic pathways (Djordjevic et al., 2003) that would be expected to be active in clostridial cells including glycolysis, mixed acid fermentation and fermentation of amino acids Celecoxib (Gottschalk, 1979) (see Figs. S1-S3). The metabolic processes we have identified in C. difficile

are, therefore, broadly similar to those described in a recent proteomic investigation of the Gram-negative gut anaerobe, Fusobacterium varium. Potrykus et al. (2008) report that F. varium may play both beneficial and pathogenic roles in the human gut. While the antics of C. difficile left unchecked have given it a deservedly bad reputation (Heap et al., 2009), its ability to produce butyrate (Fig. S3), as is known to occur in F. varium, could mean that in asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile, the organism has the potential to contribute to colonocyte health. Such a counterintuitive hypothesis highlights the need, not only from a basic science perspective but also from a position of concern for public health, to know the frequency of asymptomatic C. difficile carriers within the general population: therefore, we see an urgent requirement to develop a better understanding of C. difficile biology within the human microbiome. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is dependent on a combination of toxin synthesis, p-cresol production and a diverse range of amino acid fermentations (Kim et al., 2008). Leucine is reported to be indispensible for the growth of this organism and may be metabolized by a reductive pathway, to isocaproate, or by means of an alternative oxidative pathway in which isovalerate and ammonia are produced.

, 2004) Some pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae also use t

, 2004). Some pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae also use the transported sialic acid to decorate their own cell surface, which is an important mechanism for their persistence in the body (Bouchet et al., 2003). Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive, nonmotile bacterium that belongs to the phylum Actinobacteria. It was first isolated from soil in 1975 during a screen for glutamate-producing bacteria

(Kinoshita et al., 1957). Because VE-822 order of its ability to produce high levels of glutamate and lysine, it has become a widely used organism in industrial biotechnology (Kumagai, 2000). Every year around 1.5 million tons of l-glutamate and 0.75 million tons of l-lysine are produced commercially using C. glutamicum (Kelle et al., 2005; Kimura, 2005). Besides glucose as a sole carbon source,

it is able to utilize a wide range of other carbon sources, such as fructose, sucrose, gluconate, acetate, propionate, pyruvate, l-lactate and ethanol as well as the amino acids glutamate and serine (Cocaign et al., 1993; Peters-Wendisch et al., 1998; Claes et al., 2002; Netzer et al., 2004). The C. glutamicum FK506 ic50 ATCC 13032 genome is around 3.3 Mb and encodes metabolic pathways for utilization of a range of sugars, many of which have been well studied in relation to providing high outputs of l-amino acids (Kalinowski et al., 2003). A recent phenotype array study of Rhodococcus opacus PD630, which included C. glutamicum ATC 13032 as a control organism, revealed that Neu5Ac can support growth of C. glutamicum. Upon further investigation, it appears that C. glutamicum has a potential set of genes that would allow it to transport and catabolize Neu5Ac as a sole carbon source (Holder et al., 2011). As sialic acid utilization is normally associated with animal commensal or pathogenic bacteria and the presence of these genes has not been detected

in other recent analysis of sialic acid utilization genes in bacteria (Almagro-Moreno & Boyd, 2009), we wished to verify this novel finding and identify the gene(s) responsible for sialic acid uptake into this soil-dwelling actinobacterium. Escherichia coli DH5α was grown aerobically in 37 °C in Luria–Bertani medium. Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was cultivated aerobically at 30 °C in complex brain–heart infusion medium (BHI; Thymidylate synthase Difco Laboratories) or in minimal CGXII medium (Elleling & Reyes, 2005), supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose or other carbon sources as indicated. Growth of C. glutamicum was monitored at 600 nm. Kanamycin was added to culture when required at 25 μg mL−1 for C. glutamicum or 30 μg mL−1 for E. coli. For liquid growth experiments with C. glutamicum, cells from starter cultures grown during the day in 5 mL of BHI medium were used to inoculate 10 mL of CGXII media supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose for overnight growth. The overnight cultures were diluted to an OD600 of c.

, 2010; Hu et al, 2010) Serotyping, a procedure that relies on

, 2010; Hu et al., 2010). Serotyping, a procedure that relies on the composition of capsular material, is an important

step in the identification of S. suis. While initially classified in the early 1960s under the Lancefield scheme (S, R, and RS), strains of S. suis have subsequently been classified into SCH772984 serotype 1 (group S), serotype 2 (group R), and serotype 1/2 (RS) (Gottschalk et al., 2001). Currently, there are 35 serotypes of S. suis (1 to 34 and 1/2) (Messier et al., 2008). All serotypes are not responsible for serious diseases and pathogenicity may vary within the same serotype. Serotype 2 is most frequently associated with pathology (Gottschalk et al., 2001), although other serotypes are also the source of many infections (Tian et al., 2004; Costa et al., 2005; Zhang

et al., 2008). The existence of nontypeable isolates of S. suis has been reported (Marois et al., 2007; Wei et al., 2009). More specifically, Wei et al. (2009) characterized 407 strains of S. suis isolated from diseased pigs in China and recovered 5.4% of nontypeable isolates, while serotype 2 represented 43.2% of the isolates. In Canada, between 12% and 20% of strains recovered from diseased pigs are untypeable (Higgins & Gottschalk, 2001). In the present study, seven nontypeable strains BMS-907351 solubility dmso of S. suis isolated from infected animals were characterized with regard to their cell surface properties and compared with serotype 2 strains. The S. suis strains used in this study and their origins are listed in Table 1. Bacteria were routinely grown aerobically in Todd Hewitt Broth (THB, BBL Microbiology Systems, Cockeysville, MA) without agitation at 37 °C. Bacteria used in the assays described below were harvested from overnight (16–18 h) cultures. Wells of a flat-bottomed microtitre plate (Nunc-Immuno® MaxiSorp; Nalge Nunc International, Rochester, NY) were filled with 100 μL of fibronectin (0.1 mg mL−1; Chemicon International, Danvers, MA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a control (1 mg mL−1; Fisher Scientific, very Ottawa, ON, Canada), and the plate was incubated overnight at room temperature. The

protein solution was then removed by aspiration and 0.05% glutaraldehyde (100 μL) was subsequently added. After 45 min at room temperature, glutaraldehyde was removed and the wells were washed twice with distilled water. Cells of S. suis harvested from an overnight culture were suspended in 50 mmol L−1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.2) to an OD660 nm of 1 and 100 μL was added to each well. The plate was incubated at 37 °C for 90 min under agitation. Unbound bacteria were then removed by aspiration and the wells were washed three times with PBS containing 0.01% Tween 20 to minimize nonspecific hydrophobic interactions. Adherent bacteria in the wells were fixed with 100 μL of methanol for 15 min, washed extensively with distilled water and then stained with 0.

Here, we observe that the largest numbers of deaths among Scots t

Here, we observe that the largest numbers of deaths among Scots travelers occurred in Europe and, to a lesser degree, the Americas, in the main due to natural causes. As to the observation concerning age at death from circulatory system failure and travel abroad, additional research is required on which, if any, aspects of travel exacerbate existing conditions.29 Considering the relatively

low death rate, prospective studies would be resource intensive and require large numbers to produce statistically meaningful check details data. Nonetheless, a body of evidence exists which highlights natural causes, such as coronary heart disease,19,24,32 and injury22,24–26,32 as major causes of death among travelers. Certainly, travel health services should move beyond advising travelers to developing countries on infectious disease risks, to becoming venues for providing key advice and preventative means to all travelers, including those to developed countries. In addition, those agencies, organizations, and companies who deal with travelers along their journey should

also engage with travel health experts and practitioners to reduce the risk of adverse Staurosporine purchase outcomes, including death, to travelers. We acknowledge the advice and assistance of Prof. Chris Robertson of the University of Strathclyde with respect to the analysis of circulatory disease deaths with respect to age. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Background. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Swiss business travelers with regard to influenza and the use of antiviral medication. Methods. Questionnaires, available in three languages, were distributed manually and online through companies,

organizations, and travel medicine specialists in Switzerland to business travelers who were traveling during the period January 2005 to April 2009. Result. In total, 661 questionnaires were fully completed and evaluated. A total of 58.9% (n = 388) of the respondents stated that they had contracted Methocarbamol influenza in the past; some 48.6% (n = 321) of the travelers had been vaccinated against seasonal influenza at least once in their lifetime; 87.1% (n = 576) of the travelers knew that influenza can be transmitted by droplets; and 62.3% (n = 412) were aware of transmission by direct contact. Almost all respondents (96.8%; n = 633) recognized fever as a main symptom of influenza, 80.0% (n = 523) knew about muscular aches and pain, 79.5% (n = 520) about shivering, and 72.9% (n = 477) about joint pain. Some 38.0% (n = 250) of the respondents stated that the annual vaccination is their preferred prevention method for influenza, 35.6% (n = 234) would neither do an annual vaccination nor carry antiviral medication, 16.0% (n = 105) would carry antiviral medication, 8.

We recommend therapy-naïve patients start combination

We recommend therapy-naïve patients start combination Selleck Gemcitabine ART containing TDF and FTC as the NRTI backbone (1A). We suggest ABC and 3TC is an acceptable alternative NRTI backbone in therapy-naïve patients who, before starting ART, have a baseline VL≤100 000 copies/mL

(2A). ABC must not be used in patients who are HLA-B*57:01 positive (1A). Three RCTs have compared TDF-FTC with ABC-3TC as the NRTI backbone in combination with different third agents: ATV/r or EFV [2-6], EFV [7-9] and LPV/r [10]. Assessment of virological efficacy as a critical outcome was complicated by different definitions across the three studies. In our analysis for GRADE (see Appendix 3.1), there was no difference in rates of virological suppression at selleck products 48 weeks or 96 weeks but the analysis excluded the largest of

the three trials (ACTG 5202) and the quality of evidence for this outcome was assessed as low or very low. Assessment of the risk of protocol-defined virological failure at 48 weeks favoured TDF-FTC (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53–1.07); the effect was not statistically significant and heterogeneity in the analysis was relatively high (I2 46%). Assessment of protocol-defined virological failure at 96 weeks showed a significant difference favouring TDF-FTC (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59–0.92). Data were only available from one study [4] for this analysis; however, this was by far the largest of the three trials and the quality of evidence

assessment for this outcome was rated as high. The difference in virological failure was assessed by the Writing Group to be large enough to be above the clinical threshold for decision-making. The difference equates to a Protein kinase N1 number needed to treat to prevent one case of virological failure of approximately 20 patients treated for 1 year. The results of ACTG 5202 [2-4] are complicated by early termination of those individuals with a baseline VL >100 000 copies/mL at the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board due to significantly inferior performance in those subjects receiving ABC-3TC. No difference in virological efficacy between the TDF-FTC and ABC-3TC arms was seen in those in the lower VL stratum (baseline VL <100 000 copies/mL). The subsequent 96-week analysis, after discontinuation of those subjects in the higher VL stratum, may therefore underestimate the difference between the two backbones. HLA-B*57:01 screening was not routine in ACTG 5202 and this potentially may have influenced some of the safety endpoints, but appears not to have influenced the primary virological outcome. In the higher VL strata the number of patients with suspected hypersensitivity reactions was equal between both arms and virological failure in these patients was infrequent.

Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against PCP is effective, but there ar

Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis against PCP is effective, but there are no data on when to initiate it in infants of indeterminate Apitolisib purchase HIV status being followed up after in utero exposure to HIV. A maternal VL of 1000 HIV RNA copies/mL is an arbitrary cut-off to define infants at higher risk of transmission, in whom it is recommended to start prophylaxis until lack of transmission has been established.

8.3.1 Infants born to HIV-positive mothers should follow the routine national primary immunization schedule. Grading: 1D Generally, BCG vaccine should only be given when the exclusively formula-fed infant is confirmed HIV uninfected at 12–14 weeks. However, infants considered at low risk of HIV transmission (maternal VL <50 HIV RNA copies/mL at or after 36 weeks' gestation) but with a high risk of tuberculosis exposure may be given BCG at birth. Where the mother is coinfected with HBV, immunization against HBV infection should be as per the Green Book and does not differ

this website from management of the HIV-unexposed infant [49]. With sensitivity to concerns about confidentiality, families should be strongly encouraged to inform primary health carers, including midwives, health visitors and family doctors about maternal HIV and indeterminate infants. This will enable the local team to give appropriate support and advice, especially regarding infant feeding and where the infant or mother is unwell. 8.4.1 All mothers known to be HIV positive, regardless of ART, and infant PEP, should be advised to exclusively formula feed from birth. Grading: 1A It is well established that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child by breastfeeding [[50][[51][#[52]]Ent]288]. RCT evidence from Kenya puts the transmission rate at 16% over 2 years, accounting for almost half the total MTCTs [52]. Complete avoidance of breastfeeding removes this risk altogether [[52][[53][#[54]]Ent]290] and is the current standard of care in the UK [[3],[55]]. This is in line with previous World Health Organization (WHO) guidance, that exclusive feeding with infant formula milk should be recommended for women with HIV where it is affordable, feasible, acceptable,

sustainable and safe [56]. Recently, cohort [[57][[58][#[59]][60]]296] and RCT [[5],[8],[61]] data from Africa have shown that ART can significantly reduce the risk of HIV transmission from breastfeeding. This is in settings where breastfeeding Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase is not affordable, feasible, acceptable, sustainable and safe, and mortality from formula feeding outweighs additional mortality from HIV transmission by breastfeeding [[62],[63]]. WHO guidance remains that in countries where formula feeding is safe, a national or regional policy decision should be made on feeding policy [64]. Although breastfeeding transmission is reduced by ART, it is not abolished [[8],[57],[59][[60][#[61]][65]][66],301,302]. There is laboratory evidence that the breast milk of HIV-positive women on ART contains cells that may shed virus [67].

Close liaison with the obstetric team is recommended 426 In th

Close liaison with the obstetric team is recommended. 4.2.6 In the event that a woman who has initiated HAART during pregnancy has not achieved a plasma VL of <50 copies/mL at 36 weeks the following interventions are recommended: Grading 1C Review

adherence and concomitant medication. Perform resistance test if appropriate. Consider TDM. Optimize to best regimen. Consider intensification. http://www.selleckchem.com/products/epz015666.html For a woman who conceives on HAART that is not fully suppressive or loses virological control during pregnancy, these interventions should be undertaken as soon as possible. If treatment failure occurs when the infant is likely to be delivered prematurely and may be unable to take medication enterally, intensification should consist of therapies that readily cross the placenta such as double-dose tenofovir, raltegravir and single-dose nevirapine. “
“The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of clinical and molecular risk factors, including peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA), for the development of lactic acidosis (LA) and symptomatic hyperlactataemia (SHL). In a substudy of a large multicentre, randomized trial of three antiretroviral regimens, all containing

didanosine (ddI) and stavudine (d4T), in antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients, INK 128 cell line patients with LA/SHL (‘cases’) were compared with those without LA/SHL in a univariate analysis, with significant parameters analysed in a multivariate model. In a molecular substudy, PBMC mtDNA and mtRNA from

cases and matched controls at baseline and time of event were examined. In 911 subjects followed for a median of 192 weeks, 24 cases were identified (14 SHL and 10 LA). In univariate analysis, cases Montelukast Sodium were more likely to be female (P=0.05) and to have a high body mass index (BMI) (P=0.02). In multivariate analyses, only BMI remained an independent predictor of the development of LA/SHL (P=0.03). Between cases and controls there was no significant difference in mtDNA copy number at baseline (389 vs. 411 copies/cell, respectively; P=0.60) or at time of event (329 vs. 474 copies/cell, respectively; P=0.21), in the change in mtDNA copy number from baseline to event (−65 vs. +113 copies/cell, respectively; P=0.12), in mtRNA expression at baseline or time of event, or in the change in mtRNA expression from baseline to event. The development of LA/SHL was associated with increased BMI, but PBMC mtDNA and mtRNA did not predict LA/SHL. This demonstrates the ineffectiveness of routine measurement of PBMC mtDNA in patients on ddI and d4T as a means of predicting development of LA/SHL. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly reduced mortality and morbidity in patients with HIV-1 infection [1].

Previous studies have shown that Obx induces hyperactivity in the

Previous studies have shown that Obx induces hyperactivity in the OF test (Kelly et al., 1997; Cryan et al., 2002; Harkin et al., 2003; Song & Leonard,

2005; Zueger et al., 2005; Breuer et al., 2007; Song & Wang, 2010) and increased anxiety-like behavior (Harkin et al., 2003; Song & Leonard, 2005; Wang et al., 2007), this last alteration being reversed by anxiolytic drugs (Wieronska & Papp, 2001). In the present study, we observed that Obx induced hyperactivity and was anxiogenic, as the Obx group spent less time in the open arms and more time in the closed arms of the EPM. Also, in the OF test, the Obx group walked a greater distance in the peripheral than in the central zone of the apparatus, Lumacaftor cost corroborating the findings of the above-mentioned studies. Interestingly, there was no effect of FO as such on hyperactivity

or anxiety-like behavior. Rather, the supplementation prevented the motor alterations induced by Obx, as the ObxFO group no longer differed from the C and FO groups. These results are in agreement with previous studies from our group, using supplementation during pregnancy and lactation, investigating the long-term effects of this PUFA on the forced swimming test (Naliwaiko et al., 2004; Ferraz et al., 2008), on depressive-like behavior (Vines et al., 2012), and on the prevention of stress-induced cognitive, anxiety-like BI2536 and depressive-like behaviors (Ferraz et al., 2011). Regarding the MFST, which Selleck Erastin is a predictive test of antidepressant-like effects, the results showed that FO had an antidepressant effect even in sham-operated rats, as offspring that had received supplementation showed less depressive-like behavior, as reflected by decreased immobility

and increased swimming frequencies. Bulbectomised rats, on the other hand, showed the expected depressive-like behavior, which was prevented by FO supplementation. By using the OLT, we showed memory impairment in Obx rats, indicating that Obx caused impairment of spatial memory, which requires hippocampal integrity (Song & Leonard, 2005; Ostrovskaya et al., 2007). Considering the known cognition-enhancing effect of ω-3 PUFAs (Asl et al., 2008; Gomez-Pinilla, 2008; Wu et al., 2008; Song et al., 2009; Venna et al., 2009; Su, 2010; Ferraz et al., 2011), we observed maintenance of cognitive function in the ObxFO group. The negative discrimination index shown by Obx rats supports the idea that FO prevented the adverse effects of Obx on spatial memory. Importantly, the behavioral results were not attributable to the hyperactivity induced by Obx.