In summary, OCCS is a widely accessible method that can be used t

In summary, OCCS is a widely accessible method that can be used to discriminate different causes of sudden monocular blindness. Safety is ensured by the aforementioned technical modifications. Presence or absence of the “spot sign”

helps to further discriminate embolic from vasculitic occlusion of the CRA. The expenditure of time for the examination is short and the technique is easily applied, even in the hands of less-experienced ultrasonographers. We thank Florian Zeman of the Center for Clinical Studies, located at University Hospital Regensburg for his assistance in the statistical analysis. Further, we thank our collaborators in the Department of Pathology at ZD1839 the University Hospital Regensburg, especially Prof. Ferdinand Hofstätter, M.D., for providing fast results of the temporal artery biopsies. Special thanks go to our medical technical assistant, Beate Winheim, for conducting routine ultrasound diagnostic

examinations of the brain-supplying arteries. “
“Detection of increased intracranial pressure Dabrafenib (ICP) is associated with poor outcome and therefore important in neurocritical care. Although invasive ventricular devices are the gold standard for continuous and reliable measurement of ICP, its placement could be challenging due to lack of immediate surgical availability, and their malfunction or obstruction has been reported. Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is a suitable bedside method for daily assessment of the changes of ICP by continuous monitoring of the changes of blood flow velocities and MRIP pulsatility index, reflecting decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure due to increases in ICP [1]. However, its usage is restricted in patients with insufficient temporal bone windows. Noninvasive ocular ultrasonography

has recently been proposed to detect elevated ICP, since the retrobulbar segment of the optic nerve is surrounded by a distensible subarachnoid space which can inflate during increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Clinical studies have suggested that sonographic measurements of optic nerve sheath diameter correlate with clinical signs of increased intracranial pressure, and this technique could serve as a screening test in patients at risk for increased ICP, when invasive monitoring is not possible or is not clearly recommended [2], [3], [4], [5] and [6]. Brain death is a clinical diagnosis developing after different pathological processes causing brain edema and raised ICP that finally lead to brain incarceration. As a result of extreme increased ICP, brain perfusion will cease, that is typically visualized as a stop of the contrast medium at the scull base on angiography.

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