In the first, transgenic expression of a truncated endophilin lac

In the first, transgenic expression of a truncated endophilin lacking the synaptojanin/dynamin binding site was found to rescue behavioral and synaptic deficits in endophilin mutant worms, leading the authors to propose that endophilin’s primary role is to bend membranes prior to fission (Bai et al., 2010). In the second, structure-function experiments in mouse neurons uncovered a novel role for endophilin in controlling neurotransmitter release through interactions with the glutamate transporter that loads synaptic vesicles (Weston et al., 2011). It is

therefore likely that endophilin plays multiple roles in exo- and endocytosis, depending on species, cell type, and subcellular compartment. Elucidating these alternate functional roles of endophilin will require further study, but Milosevic et al. (2011) provide compelling evidence that Fludarabine at mammalian central synapses, endophilin plays a critical role in neurotransmission by helping synaptic vesicles take off their coats. “
“For most organisms, chemical cues in the environment (odorants) guide behaviors critical for survival,

including reproduction, mother-infant interactions, finding food, and avoiding predators. The basic components of olfactory systems which transduce odorants into odor percepts have remained remarkably consistent over millions of years of evolution and across varied ecological niches. At the periphery is a diverse array of sensory receptors tuned either to specific molecules Cytidine deaminase (Jones et al., 2007 and Suh et al., 2004)

or much more commonly to submolecular features (Araneda et al., 2000). Sensory neurons expressing the same odorant receptor converge onto glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (vertebrates) or antennal lobe (invertebrates), producing a unique, odorant-specific spatial pattern of activity in second order neurons (Johnson and Leon, 2007 and Lin et al., 2006). The odor-evoked spatiotemporal pattern of second order neuron activity is then projected to the olfactory cortical areas (vertebrates, especially mammals) or mushroom bodies (invertebrates), where odor quality appears to be encoded in a sparse and distributed manner in striking contrast to the spatial patterns in the olfactory bulb (Perez-Orive et al., 2002, Rennaker et al., 2007 and Stettler and Axel, 2009). Several excellent reviews of olfaction, covering topics from the periphery to perception have been recently published (e.g., Davis, 2011, Gottfried, 2010, Mori and Sakano, 2011 and Su et al., 2009). Here, we focus on the mammalian olfactory cortex. The olfactory cortex serves as point of anatomical convergence for olfactory bulb output neurons, mitral/tufted cells, conveying information about distinct odorant features extracted in the periphery. This convergence is an important early step in the ultimate formation of perceptual odor objects, such as the aroma coffee or rose.

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