However, during the following decades, the surface cooling progre

However, during the following decades, the surface cooling progressively intensifies in our simulation to largely overwhelm the summer local warming, thus imprinting the annual mean response on the long BKM120 term. The inclusion of the biogeochemical component thus generally acts to cool the upper ocean up to 300 m depth. This response is rather large and dominates the

hydrographical differences between CM4_piCtrl and CM5_piCtrl. This is due to the specific profile of the chlorophyll in IPSL-CM5A, which translates substantial differences in nutrient distribution, incoming shortwave or ocean circulation as compared to IPSL-CM4. However, further work is needed to single out what prominent drivers are behind this change in the vertical profile of chlorophyll. Finally, two simulations integrated in parallel using rigorously the same atmospheric component and ocean initial conditions but oceanic models corresponding to the control version IPSL-CM5A and IPSL-CM4 respectively (thus differing by all aspects discussed PARP inhibitor above), named CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO, were analysed. The sign of surface temperature

anomalies between CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO is consistent with the effects of the biological module. Nevertheless, the amplitude of the differences in SST between CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO are much larger than between CM5_piCtrl and CM5_piCtrl_noBio. Dynamical adjustments induced by additional parameterisations in the oceanic model indeed led to major improvements in particular in the representation of the Southern Ocean both thermodynamically (meridional density gradient) and dynamically (water mass transport). In particular, these

changes have enabled a strengthening of the barotropic flow of water mass of the Antarctic circumpolar current by about 20% and of the northward flow of Antarctic bottom water by about 17%. Below the surface, the amplitude of the differences between CM5_piCtrl and CM5_piCtrl_noBio is similar to the differences between CM5_piStart and CM5_RETRO, suggesting a leading role of the interactive biogeochemical module. Despite a stronger mass transport, the zonal ocean heat transport not in the Southern Ocean is even more underestimated in CM5_piStart than in CM5_RETRO as compared to a global inverse model based on observations (0.8 PW in Talley, 2003). This could partly come from an unrealistic southward heat transport in the South Atlantic in the former version, as well as from the thermal structure in the Southern Ocean. Indeed, most improvements in this region described above were shown to be dominated by salinity. In general, both heat and freshwater transport changes were found to be consistent with atmospheric fluxes and dynamic adjustments, and helpful in interpreting the latter.

Then, 20 μL of this suspension was injected into the HPLC (Shimad

Then, 20 μL of this suspension was injected into the HPLC (Shimadzu, C18 reverse

phase and UV detection at 280 nm) and eluted with a gradient of acetonitrile and 0.175 (g/100 mL) orthophosphoric acid ( Makkar et al., 1997). We use phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (Sigma) as standard. The soluble protein and reducing sugar contents were determined according to the colorimetric methods described by Bradford (1976) and Miller (1959). For this analysis, 10 g of the crushed mushrooms was placed in Erlenmeyer flasks (125 mL) containing 25 mL sodium citrate buffer buy Idelalisib (0.05 mol/L and pH 4.8). These flasks were kept in a shaker for 30 min at 150 rpm, and the extracts were filtered using Millipore membranes (Cavallazzi et al., 2004). This experiment was conducted using a completely randomized design with 5 replicates. The data were subjected to analysis

of variance, and the averages were compared by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05) using Saeg software (version 9.1, Federal University of Viçosa). The tannin concentrations Transmembrane Transporters activator observed in the jatropha seed cake (Fig. 1) were similar to those found in the fruit peel of J. curcas ( Makkar, Aderibigbe, & Becker, 1998). The greatest concentration of this compound was observed in the substrate with coffee husk and eucalypt bark ( Fig. 1). This may have been due to the presence of tannins in the eucalypt bark ( Vázquez, González-Alvarez, Santos, Freire, & Antorrena, 2009) and in the coffee husk ( Barcelos, Paiva, Pérez, Santos, & Cardoso, 2001). The thermal treatment Anacetrapib of the substrates decreased the tannin concentration by 46%

(Fig. 1). This result was similar to that observed in vegetables after cooking or autoclaving at 121 °C and 128 °C for different periods of time (Rehman & Shah, 2005). Regardless of the substrate, tannin degradation by P. ostreatus Plo 6 increased as a function of the incubation time, and the highest rate was observed between 15 and 30 d in the substrate with coffee husk and eucalypt bark ( Fig. 1). The high degradation rate of this compound was also observed in Pleurotus sp. cultivated in coffee husk for 60 d ( Fan et al., 2006) and this tannin degradation may be related to tannase activity (tannin acyl hydrolase, EC The activity of this enzyme in the polyphenols degradation has been reported in Aspergillus and Penicillium ( Batra & Saxena, 2005). Thus, P. ostreatus can degrade the tannins in J. curcas seed cake and the other tested substrates. The acid phytic content in the jatropha seed cake (Fig. 2A) was lower than the percentage this acid found in the seed of J. curcas by Makkar et al. (1998). This result shows that a percentage this acid was in the oil. Although phytic acid is considered to be heat-stable (Deshpande & Damodaran, 1990), the sterilization of the substrates decreased in 20% the content of phytic acid (Fig. 2A).

Following 48 h of stimulation, CD86 expression is determined by f

Following 48 h of stimulation, CD86 expression is determined by flow cytometry. Dead cells are detected using 7-Aminoactinomycin (7-AAD) staining. If a test substance induces on average ⩾20% increase in CD86-positive cells compared to non-treated

cells it is considered as a skin sensitiser. The acceptable relative cytotoxicity range is limited to ⩽20% (Reuter et al., 2011). The VITOSENS assay uses differentiated CD34+ progenitor cells derived from human cord blood as surrogate for DC. The response to test substance exposure is evaluated by comparing the fold change in the expression of CCR2 (C–C chemokine receptor type 2) and the transcription factor cAMP responsive element modulator (CREM) compared to solvent-exposed AZD6244 purchase cells (Hooyberghs et al., 2008). In a concentration range-finding experiment using cells from one donor, the concentration that yields around 20% cell death (IC20) at 24 h is determined using PI staining and flow cytometry. Next, the cells are exposed to a dilution series including the IC20 concentration or, in case of a non-cytotoxic substance, with the highest soluble concentration. After 6 h, 0.5 million cells are collected for later RNA extraction

and subsequent qPCR of CREM and CCR2 to analyse their relative gene expression. After 24 h, the remainder of the cells is collected and NVP-LDE225 supplier the cell viability is determined using PI. The concentration that is then confirmed to induce 20% cell death in all donors is used for the molecular analysis and prediction of the sensitisation outcome. The experimental set-up is repeated on cell cultures from two different cord blood donors. In case of discordant results, a third donor is tested. The resulting fold changes are combined by a weighted average to predict whether the substance is sensitising or non-sensitising. Furthermore, the fold changes of CREM and CCR2 can be combined with the IC20-value in a tiered approach for potency

prediction (is Adenosine triphosphate Lambrechts et al., 2010 and Lambrechts et al., 2011). The methods described previously use one or two read-out parameters to provide information on the sensitising potential or potency of a test compound. The following methods were allocated to this section as they investigate a set of 10–200 parameters and so may have the ability to provide further insight into the mechanism by which a specific compound induces skin sensitisation. Note that both GARD and SensiDerm™ use surrogates of dendritic cells (see Section 2.1.3) and Sens-IS and SenCeeTox expose 3D epidermal skin tissues addressing substance activation by keratinocytes as well as the cytotoxicity of a substance (see Sections 2.1.1 and 2.1.2). The Sens-IS method classifies sensitisers according to potency categories based on the expression profiles of 65 genes, which are grouped in one gene set for irritancy and two (SENS-IS and ARE) for sensitisation (Cottrez, 2011).

Finally, we dichotomized our SEP measure to manual/non-manual cat

Finally, we dichotomized our SEP measure to manual/non-manual categories to ease construction of a long-term SEP measure. While dichotomizing the RGSC measure is a common and validated procedure, the meaning of social class (and the binary distinction) has become less relevant over time in the UK (with the increase in non-manual

service sector jobs such as call centers, for example). In summary, we have found evidence that material conditions, as well as smoking, are important mediators in the pathway between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. This is an important step in better understanding the pathways and mechanisms linking SEP, physiology and health. All authors declare that there are no conflicts buy Obeticholic Acid of interest. “
“The relationship between inflammation and depression in humans and in animal models is well-established. Individuals receiving immunotherapies have a higher Caspase inhibitor incidence of depressive symptoms (Capuron and Miller, 2011). Patients with major depressive disorders have higher levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines than healthy controls (Maes, 2011). Likewise, depressive phenotypes were observed in response to bacterial challenge (Brydon et al., 2008). These associations suggested that inflammation may result in depressive symptomatology mediated by neuroimmune mechanisms. Designed experiments using animal models

are offering insights into the relationship between infection, inflammation, and depression-like indicators.

Mice injected live attenuated Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) displayed high circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokines and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. These mice exhibited sickness behaviors encompassing reduction in body weight and locomotor activity from Day 5 to Day 7. Likewise, challenged mice demonstrated depressive-like behaviors including lower mobility in the tail suspension test and in the Porsolt forced swim test, and lower sucrose intake in the sucrose preference test from Day 7 to Day 30 after treatment (Moreau et al., 2008 and O’Connor et al., 2009). In addition, substantial mouse-to-mouse variation in response to BCG treatment was reported, including up to 30% of treated mice failing to exhibit adverse mobility effects (Platt et al., 2013). Reductionist approaches based on the analysis of individual components have dominated the study of complex behavioral responses to infection. However, these reductionist approaches could have hindered the identification and characterization of systemic responses across multiple and typically correlated behaviors. Six studies reported associations between BCG-treatment and sickness and depression-like behaviors in mice (Moreau et al., 2008, O’Connor et al., 2009, Kelley et al., 2013, Painsipp et al., 2013, Platt et al., 2013 and Vijaya et al., 2014). In these studies, behavioral indicators were analyzed separately.

Previous discussion of NMAs has been largely confined to the neur

Previous discussion of NMAs has been largely confined to the neurosurgical literature. The general interpretation in that literature suggests that the normal function of NMAs is the fine regulation of motor output (Ikeda et al., 2009). Here we propose an alternative interpretation, that NMAs reflect a functional system for

inhibition of action. Given the widespread neuropsychological consensus that inhibition of action is a crucial aspect of both cognitive control of behaviour, this interpretation would make NMA data highly relevant to cognitive neuropsychology. We review the NMA literature with a specific emphasis on the possible contribution of NMAs to inhibitory processing (i.e., processing of external stimuli signalling selleck chemicals the need for motor inhibition), and cognitive control of action (i.e., the mechanisms taking place to allow for the stopping of ongoing action). Psychologists Cell Cycle inhibitor have often studied inhibition in the context of cognitive tasks such as the stop-signal task. In this task participants make motor responses to a designated target, but must withhold the motor response when a stop signal appears (Verbruggen and Logan, 2008). The derived stop-signal reaction time is a measure of a participant’s ability to withhold action. Neuropsychological theory has long

pointed to the importance of inhibitory control in the frontal lobes (Fulton and Jacobsen, 1935). The cortical and subcortical neural circuits supporting inhibitory function in the context of a stop-signal task have been extensively explored (Aron et al., 2007, Chikazoe, 2010 and Nambu et al., 2002). Neuroimaging studies of the stop-signal task suggest that both the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) contribute to inhibiting ongoing actions in response to stop signals (Aron and Poldrack, 2006, Chambers et al., 2009, Chikazoe et al., 2009 and Swick Olopatadine et al., 2011). The precise division of labour between these areas

remains unclear. On the one hand, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the IFG has been shown to selectively impair inhibitory function in a stop-signal task (Chambers et al., 2006), without affecting general arousal. In addition, group neuropsychological studies confirmed a correlation between performance in a stop-signal task and the extent of damage to the IFG (Aron et al., 2003). On the other hand, when a traditional stop signal task is compared with another task that controls for attentional demands BOLD activity differs only in the pre-SMA, but not in the IFG (Sharp et al., 2010 and Tabu et al., 2011). Therefore it has been suggested that IFG may be involved in attending to the external stop signal, while the pre-SMA may provide the active process of inhibition (Duann et al., 2009, Hampshire et al., 2010 and Mostofsky and Simmonds, 2008). In turn, this view has been disputed.

The retrospective design is a significant bias concerning the dat

The retrospective design is a significant bias concerning the data collected, which can have an impact on results. Randomized studies are difficult to implement, given the small number of patients, acquisition of one specific technique per referral center, and the fact that the patients are often specifically referred for a selected technique of treatment. However, we think that the consistency of treatment BMS-354825 cell line over the whole study and the detailed

long-term clinical outcome allow us to provide data useful to clinical practice. In conclusion, flexible endoscopy has become a new standard for ZD treatment when performed with adequate equipment inspired by rigid diverticuloscopes. This approach has a lower rate of adverse events than open surgery or endoscopic stapling techniques. Moreover, the risk of general anesthesia in elderly patients can be avoided because airways are protected by the diverticuloscope. Recurrence

is about 25% in the long term but is easily amenable to successful repeated endoscopic treatment. “
“Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) is an acquired disease that is formed by outpouching of hypopharyngeal mucosa between the inferior pharyngeal constrictor and the cricopharyngeus muscle in an area of junctional muscle weakness known as Killian’s triangle.1 Although the need for myotomy in addition to surgical correction of the diverticulum has been well described, it is only in the past 20 years that more clear insight has emerged on the pathophysiology of ZD despite its original description in the 1700s.1 Specifically, Cook et al2 elegantly demonstrated CHIR-99021 chemical structure that in patients with ZD, the upper esophageal sphincter is fibrotic, contributing to reduced compliance, incomplete opening, and therefore increased pressure proximal to the cricopharyngeal NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase outlet. This leads to a “blow out” of the weakest part of the pharyngeal wall and formation of the diverticulum. Other studies have been conflicting in demonstrating

an increased tone within the sphincter.1 Nevertheless, these and other data have reinforced that cricopharyngeal myotomy is essential in relieving symptoms and preventing recurrent diverticula.1 The traditional approach to cricopharyngeal myotomy and to diverticulectomy or -pexy has been open through a lateral neck incision. In the past 2 decades, however, this operation has been shifting to a transoral endoscopic approach using a rigid endoscope because of equal efficacy, shorter hospital stay, faster return to oral intake, and lower morbidity because of a reduction in adverse events compared with open surgery.3 Such adverse events may include injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, mediastinitis, and fistula.1 Not all patients with ZD are amenable to transoral endoscopic therapy using a rigid endoscope.

Therefore, hybridization among different horticultural types has

Therefore, hybridization among different horticultural types has been used to develop new cultivars and breeding lines. Lindqvist Selleck HIF inhibitor pointed out that most lettuce breeding occurred between butterhead and leaf types, since they have very similar leaf texture and midrib appearance [48]. Genealogy of contemporary North American lettuce shows that 52% of lettuce cultivars were bred using two parents, 31% from selection within a cultivar, 7% from three parents, 7% from backcrossing, 2% from four or more parents, and 1% from inter-specific crosses [49] and [50]. Recognizing the population structure in our collection will enable

us to apply the linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based association mapping to accurately identify DNA markers closely linked to genes

and genomic regions associated with desirable traits. Our results for population structure and cluster analysis agree with previous studies involving cultivated lettuce germplasm [30]. Genotyping of 258 homozygous lettuce genotypes with 322 SNP markers allowed a preliminary genome-wide analysis of marker-trait association. We found that seed coat color was significantly associated with four markers on linkage group 7; CLS_S3_Contig8254-1-OP4 (88.3%), CLS_S3_Contig7479-10-OP5 (80.0%), QGC12P16-4-OP1 (77.3%) and Contig10156-1-OP1 (76.0%). Two SNP markers from linkage group 9, CLS_S3_Contig5434-3-OP4 (69.3%) and CLSY4478.b1_K16-8-OP4 Atezolizumab (67.0%), were significantly associated with anthocyanin on stems or leaves. These markers are potentially useful in MAS in lettuce improvement when they are validated with segregating populations, and they also can be used as the starting point to identify candidate genes underlying the respective phenotypic

traits. With the recent release of the draft lettuce genome sequence from the Compositae Genome Project website ( that was supported by the USDA IFAFS program and NSF Plant Genome Program, we could locate most of the SNP sites in the genome. For example, lettuce seed coat color is a simply inherited trait [51] and a seed coat color locus Abiraterone purchase (br) was mapped onto a linkage group with four AFLP markers using a recombinant inbred line population [52]. However, the br locus has not been assigned to a lettuce chromosome. The current study found that four SNPs associated with seed coat color are on chromosome 7. The lettuce genomeViewer website ( indicates that the assembled lettuce chromosome 7 is approximately 240 Mb in length. Three of the four SNPs associated with seed coat color, QGC12P16-4-OP1, CLS_S3_Contig8254-1-OP4 and CLS_S3_Contig7479-10-OP5 are located at positions 69,873,871, 80,636,383 and 81,871,389, respectively. In other words, these three SNP sites are physically resided within a segment of 12 Mb, which most likely harbors the br locus conditioning the seed coat color.

The ET-induced alterations of intestinal barrier permit bidirecti

The ET-induced alterations of intestinal barrier permit bidirectional passage of proteins, including ET, between the intestinal Selleck Anti-diabetic Compound Library lumen and the plasma compartment, as assessed using Horse Radish Peroxidase or Evans blue bound to plasma proteins ( Goldstein

et al., 2009). Thus, by altering the intestinal permeability, ET facilitates its own passage in the circulatory fluids ( Fernandez-Miyakawa and Uzal, 2003; Losada-Eaton et al., 2008). To summarize, whereas the mechanisms in which enterotoxin from C. perfringens opens tight junctions is well known (reviewed by Berkes et al., 2003; McClane et al., 2006; Popoff, 2011b), the way in which ET toxin modulates the tight junctions remains unclear. Following haematogenous BIRB 796 research buy dissemination, ET reaches central nervous system. The second step is the passage of ET through the blood–brain barrier. The latter consists of endothelial cells stitched together by tight junctions that restrict the passage of large molecules from blood to brain. After intraperitoneal ET injection

in mice, many capillaries are reduced to a thin electron dense band, indicating major changes in endothelial cells (Finnie, 1984b). Following intravenous injection of protoxin or toxin tagged with Green-Fluorescent-Protein (proET-GFP or ET-GFP) in mice, both proET-GFP and ET-GFP can be detected bound onto the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium (Soler-Jover et al., 2007). Studies performed using EBA (endothelial barrier antigen) to assess the integrity of blood–brain barrier in

rats, have revealed severe alteration of the barrier following intraperitoneal administration of proET (Zhu et al., 2001). However, consistent with lack of biological activity of proET, others have found that proET remains bound onto the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium, whereas ET-GFP induces blood–brain barrier disorganization and passes through (Soler-Jover et al., 2007). Therefore, the observation that endogenous albumin extravasation occurs after proET application (Zhu et al., 2001) is likely due to the conversion of proET into fully active ET by the plasma and tissue proteases. With this respect, note that a major difference between the above mentioned studies resides in the delay between proET injection and animal sacrifice: 1 h to 14 days post-injection (Zhu et al., 2001) vs. 7 min post-injection (Soler-Jover et al., 2007). This delay may allow significant activation of proET into ET by the body proteases. In mouse, rat or lamb brains, severing of the blood–brain barrier leads to passage of proteins, like serum albumin (endogenous, coupled to Alexa-677, or 125I human serum albumin) as well as Horse Radish Peroxidase or 125I-polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (Buxton, 1976; Finnie et al., 2008, 1999; Griner and Carlson, 1961; Nagahama and Sakurai, 1991). Spreading of ET in neural tissue has been found more diffused than that of albumin, which remains confined around the damaged vessels (Soler-Jover et al., 2007).

It has been proposed that nanoparticles demonstrated increased cy

It has been proposed that nanoparticles demonstrated increased cytotoxicity by ‘enhanced permeation and retention’ (EPR) relative to the parent polymer through which they tend to be accumulated at the tumor sites, delivering better responses with less deleterious effects. Importantly, tumor is accompanied with acidosis and tumor microenvironment will follow a drastic drop in pH compared with the surrounding niche. Hence, in the case of hydrophilic polymers like PST001, EPR will enable the accumulation of PST-Dox nanoparticles and release of Dox preferentially at the tumor target sites. This aspect was noticed

with the release kinetics performed on human cancer cell lines such as HCT116, MCF-7 and K562 for the measurement of intracellular Dox. Also, both the Venetoclax confocal measurement and

flurimetric estimation clearly demonstrate the increased accumulation of Dox from the PST-Dox nanoparticles compared to the naked Dox-Hcl. Prolongation of lifespan in animals with an ILS exceeding 25% indicated antitumor effectiveness of a drug as per NCI criteria [25]. The tumor reduction exhibited by PST-Dox nanoparticle was higher than the clinically used counterpart Dox, and the overall survival was also the longest than many known chemotherapeutics. This superior effect combined with less toxicity could be attributed to the already reported immunomodulatory effects of PST001 [22] in the nanoparticle formulation. Most chemotherapeutic agents have serious side-effects which limit their widespread clinical applications, warranting the need for anticancer agents that are non-toxic to normal cells. We recently reported the tumor Progesterone specificity and reduction in the Dox organ-related toxicity in galactoxyloglucan-Dox conjugated nanoparticles

[26]. In the current study also, there were no observable side-effects upon administration of the parent polysaccharide as well as its nanoparticle derivative, which justifies their unique drug utility. PST-Dox nanoparticles maintained the safety profile of the immunostimulatory polysaccharide, PST001 while eliciting anticancer potential of both Dox and PST001. Thus, our data suggests that PST-Dox nanoparticle is a better alternative to the clinically available Dox in all the aspects, with respect to limiting both solid and ascites tumors. This study demonstrates the promising anticancer potential of a nanoparticle aggregate of doxorubicin, PST-Dox. Galactoxyloglucan nanoparticles carrying the Dox moiety significantly decreased cell viability of murine ascites by the induction of apoptosis in the monolayer culture. The cellular uptake of the PST-Dox also showed encouraging results in the colon and breast cancer cells compared to the uptake from the free Dox.

The venom of P nigriventer contains potent

neurotoxic pe

The venom of P. nigriventer contains potent

neurotoxic peptides that interfere in the physiology of Bioactive Compound Library cell line ion channels and hence in the neurotransmitter uptake/release and causes excitatory signals ( Fontana and Vital Brazil, 1985; Love and Cruz-Höfling, 1986; Gomez et al., 2002; Pinheiro et al., 2006); PNV toxicity activates and delays the inactivation of the TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channel, blocks K+ and Ca2+ channels and blocks glutamate exocytosis but also inhibits glutamate uptake ( Prado et al., 1996; Mafra et al., 1999; Reis et al., 2000; Vieira et al., 2003). Moreover, PNV causes neuroinflammation ( Cruz-Höfling et al., 2009) and activates neurons which express the protein Fos after activation of the oncogene cFos ( Cruz-Höfling et al., 2007). Corroborating this view, we found changes in the neuron electric activity of rats exposed to PNV and inferred that Ca2+-, K+- and Na+-acting neuropeptides BLZ945 clinical trial present in the venom ( Gomez et al., 2002) generated neurotransmission disturbances which were registered in the EEG recordings ( Ferrari et al., 2010). All these effects are consistent with neurochemical and metabolic changes in the cerebellum microenvironment, so affecting basket cells and stellate interneurons of the ML, Purkinje neurons of the PL and

granule neurons and Golgi interneurons of the GL. Likewise, these changes would affect the inputs of afferent fibers to the cerebellar cortex, i.e. the climbing and mossy fibers which enter across the granular layer to synapse to Purkinje cells Glutamate dehydrogenase and granule cells (see Barlow, 2002). Altogether, the findings of the present study provide compelling evidence that PNV affects AQP4 expression.

The regional modulation would depend on the interaction between astrocytes and the neurochemical and structural characteristic of the cerebellum at a given region. A remarkable body of investigation has proven astrocytes as fundamental for neuronal activity (Kimelberg and Nedergaard, 2010). Astrocytes are involved in the control of brain homeostasis which involves reuptake of extracellular K+ and excitatory amino acids after neuronal activity, calcium balance, neural growth factor production, development and maintenance of the BBB, blood vessel permeability, blood flow, glucose supply and scar formation after brain injury, and others. Aggression against the CNS promotes an immediate reaction of astrocytes which may proliferate and migrate to the injury site concomitant with increased expression of the cytoskeletal GFAP protein. These events named reactive astrogliosis can be considered either neuroprotective (Li et al., 2008) or hazardous (Nair et al., 2008) depending on whether the injury is transitory and of low severity or is chronic and severe, respectively.