Enteritidis str. P125109 (Table 3). Its homolog on the genome sequence of S. Typhimurium LT2 accession no. NC_003197 is located at the STM0660 locus and encodes a cytoplasmic protein. caiC and SEN0629 display a GC content of 54.2% and 55.2%, respectively. The combined use of caiC and SEN0629 sequences for typing 102 S. Enteritidis strains representing 38 phage types enabled the identification of 16 sequence types and intraphage type discrimination (Table 1, Fig. 1). Isolates kept http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html their initial sequence type after being resequenced, thus indicating the high stability of caiC and SEN0629 as marker genes for S. Enteritidis subtyping. A
diverse set of 102 isolates representing a wide range of phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 5, 5a, 6, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9, 9a, 9b, 10, 11, 11a, 12, 13, 13a, 14, 14b, 15, 15a, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 20a, 22-SC2, 24, 27, 28, 31, 32 and 40-SC2) from different sources, year of isolation, geographical locations and epidemiological backgrounds was used for validation. They originated from egg-related or environmental sources. All isolates tested could be amplified using primers targeting the two loci caiC and SEN0629 and could be assigned a sequence type. All sequencing reactions were performed in both directions to ensure accuracy. The two-loci sequence typing scheme was
able to define a total of 16 sequence types among the 102 isolates tested (Fig. 1). A total of 94 polymorphic sites were identified and mostly shared among ST14, 15 and 16 (Fig. 2). The two-loci sequence typing scheme also allowed for subtype discrimination within Talazoparib order a phage type. Ten phage types represented by at least two strains
PT1 (n = 2), PT4 (n = 18), PT6a (n = 10), PT6b (n = 3), PT7 (n = 2), PT8 (n = 5), PT9a (n = 3), PT13 (n = 4), PT13a (n = 7), PT14b (n = 2) were further divided into 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, and 2 sequence types, respectively (Table 1). Briefly, the workflow of the two-loci sequence typing scheme for S. Enteritidis strains consisted of isolating DNA from a pure culture, performing PCR, direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and finally assigning a sequence type. Each of the tested phage types is associated with at least one sequence type; hence, Adenosine triphosphate the proposed method is as discriminatory – and sometimes even more – than phage typing. A total of 31 S. Enteritidis strains representing phage types 1, 4, 6, 6a, 6b, 8, 13, 13a, 14b were initially phage typed by NVSL and later sent to the same institution for a second phage typing. Of the 31 S. Enteritidis strains, 13 presented phage types that differ from the ones determined originally (Fig. 1, Table 1). One ATCC strain (ATCC 13076) was initially typed as PT1 and subsequently typed as RDNC. Three strains were originally typed as PT6b and subsequently typed as PT5a, PT5a and untypeable. Two other strains were initially typed as PT4 and were later typed as PT1a and RDNC.