Enteritidis str P125109 (Table 3) Its homolog on the genome seq

Enteritidis str. P125109 (Table 3). Its homolog on the genome sequence of S. Typhimurium LT2 accession no. NC_003197 is located at the STM0660 locus and encodes a cytoplasmic protein. caiC and SEN0629 display a GC content of 54.2% and 55.2%, respectively. The combined use of caiC and SEN0629 sequences for typing 102 S. Enteritidis strains representing 38 phage types enabled the identification of 16 sequence types and intraphage type discrimination (Table 1, Fig. 1). Isolates kept http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html their initial sequence type after being resequenced, thus indicating the high stability of caiC and SEN0629 as marker genes for S. Enteritidis subtyping. A

diverse set of 102 isolates representing a wide range of phage types (PT1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 5, 5a, 6, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9, 9a, 9b, 10, 11, 11a, 12, 13, 13a, 14, 14b, 15, 15a, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 20a, 22-SC2, 24, 27, 28, 31, 32 and 40-SC2) from different sources, year of isolation, geographical locations and epidemiological backgrounds was used for validation. They originated from egg-related or environmental sources. All isolates tested could be amplified using primers targeting the two loci caiC and SEN0629 and could be assigned a sequence type. All sequencing reactions were performed in both directions to ensure accuracy. The two-loci sequence typing scheme was

able to define a total of 16 sequence types among the 102 isolates tested (Fig. 1). A total of 94 polymorphic sites were identified and mostly shared among ST14, 15 and 16 (Fig. 2). The two-loci sequence typing scheme also allowed for subtype discrimination within Talazoparib order a phage type. Ten phage types represented by at least two strains

PT1 (n = 2), PT4 (n = 18), PT6a (n = 10), PT6b (n = 3), PT7 (n = 2), PT8 (n = 5), PT9a (n = 3), PT13 (n = 4), PT13a (n = 7), PT14b (n = 2) were further divided into 2, 2, 2, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3, and 2 sequence types, respectively (Table 1). Briefly, the workflow of the two-loci sequence typing scheme for S. Enteritidis strains consisted of isolating DNA from a pure culture, performing PCR, direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and finally assigning a sequence type. Each of the tested phage types is associated with at least one sequence type; hence, Adenosine triphosphate the proposed method is as discriminatory – and sometimes even more – than phage typing. A total of 31 S. Enteritidis strains representing phage types 1, 4, 6, 6a, 6b, 8, 13, 13a, 14b were initially phage typed by NVSL and later sent to the same institution for a second phage typing. Of the 31 S. Enteritidis strains, 13 presented phage types that differ from the ones determined originally (Fig. 1, Table 1). One ATCC strain (ATCC 13076) was initially typed as PT1 and subsequently typed as RDNC. Three strains were originally typed as PT6b and subsequently typed as PT5a, PT5a and untypeable. Two other strains were initially typed as PT4 and were later typed as PT1a and RDNC.

In the current study, we set out to determine which personal, soc

In the current study, we set out to determine which personal, socioeconomic, treatment-related and disease-related characteristics were independently associated with reported difficulty taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in those respondents who were taking ART at the time of completing the HIV Futures 6 survey. The HIV Futures 6 survey was an anonymous, self-complete, cross-sectional survey. The survey contained 189 items organized into eight sections: demographics; accommodation; health and treatments; services and communities; sex and relationships;

employment; recreational drug use; and finances. The survey was largely based on the HIV Futures 5 survey [26], which was BIBW2992 molecular weight in turn based on the four previous surveys AG 14699 [27–30]. The content of the survey was developed in consultation with a number of organizations and individuals in the HIV/AIDS sector. Survey respondents were recruited through community organizations and clinical settings, as

well as through online and paper-based advertisements in community organization and gay media within Australia. Previous survey respondents who indicated that they were interested in participating in future research projects were also approached. Any HIV-positive individual residing in Australia was eligible to complete the survey. Data were collected from October 2008 to April 2009. The HIV Futures 6 survey included two items that asked respondents about their Cediranib (AZD2171) adherence to ART over the previous 2 days: ‘How many doses (dose times) of antiretroviral drugs did you miss yesterday?’ and ‘How many doses (dose times) of antiretroviral drugs did you miss the day before yesterday?’, with scores in the range 0–5 (a score of 5 representing ≥5 missed doses). The data from these survey items were highly skewed, with only 1.5% [13]

of those respondents currently taking ART indicating any nonadherence in the previous 2 days. As a result, we needed to use a proxy variable to assess factors associated with nonadherence to cART. We considered using two other survey items: (i) self-reported most recent viral load (detectable vs. undetectable) and (ii) self-reported difficulty taking ART (‘Do you experience any difficulties in taking antiretroviral drugs?’; yes/no responses). The viral load variable was also fairly skewed, with only 48 respondents currently taking ART (5.5%) reporting a detectable viral load. Hence, we chose to use self-reported difficulty taking ART as our outcome variable. This variable was found to be highly associated with both self-reported adherence (Fisher’s exact test; P=0.001) and respondents’ most recent viral load test result (detectable vs. undetectable viral load; χ2-test; P=0.018), and was therefore deemed to be a suitable proxy variable for investigating factors associated with poor adherence to ART.

The trial compared structured interruption of cART to continuous

The trial compared structured interruption of cART to continuous therapy and made three important observations. Avasimibe research buy First, the differential effects of treatment between the two arms were not fully captured by changes

in CD4 cell count or HIV RNA. Secondly, it was found that there were more than twice as many ‘non-AIDS’ events as ‘AIDS’ events and only 8% of the deaths were caused by AIDS conditions [10]. Thirdly, rates of cardiovascular, renal and liver disease and grade IV treatment toxicities were higher in the treatment interruption arm. A combined review of HIV cohort and SMART data [10] demonstrated: (1) that morbidity and mortality among those on cART are dominated by non-AIDS rather than AIDS events; (2) there find more is a strong positive association between non-AIDS deaths and both low CD4 cell counts and high HIV RNA; and (3) the association with immunodeficiency is consistent across several types of non-AIDS events including liver disease, renal disease and non-AIDS malignancy. The authors concluded that ‘We need to adapt our research priorities to better understand the full role of HIV in causing a wide range of clinical diseases. … Clinicians caring for patients with HIV need to … become aware of the best means to try to prevent and to monitor for early signs of these [non-AIDS] outcomes. This goal would be facilitated

by an index old that combined HIV and ‘non-HIV’ biomarkers

associated with immunodeficiency and chronic viral inflammation. The most logical way to weight these factors is according to risk of all cause mortality because all cause mortality avoids assumptions regarding causality. Further, all cause mortality is the outcome of greatest importance to patients. Such an index could be used as a surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and as a guide to clinical therapy. While excellent weighted all cause mortality indices have been established in HIV infection [3,11–14], these have focused on HIV markers (CD4 cell count, HIV RNA and AIDS-defining conditions). They have largely omitted biomarkers of anaemia [15–18], liver disease [8,19–21], and renal disease [22,23] despite their documented association with both immunodeficiency and survival. In this study we used the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS), a sample of over 13 500 veterans initiating cART within the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VA), to develop and initially validate the VACS Index, which combines HIV and ‘non-HIV’ biomarkers. The VACS includes the Virtual Cohort which has been described in detail elsewhere [24,25]. In brief, the Virtual Cohort consists of over 33 000 veterans with HIV infection treated within the national Veterans Affairs Healthcare System from 1997 to the present.

Of 800 patients receiving the nevirapine XR formulation, 15 repor

Of 800 patients receiving the nevirapine XR formulation, 15 reported tablet remnants in stools, an incidence rate of 1.19% in VERxVE and 3.05% in the TRANxITION study. The difference in event rate was highly significant between the XR and immediate release (IR) formulations (P < 0.001), but not between trials (P = 0.061). All patients (15 of 15)

reporting remnants achieved Small molecule library the primary study endpoint of HIV-1 suppression (< 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL), whereas overall 81% of patients in the VERxVE trial and 94% in the TRANxITION trial did so. The mean nevirapine trough concentration was 3431.4 ng/mL in patients reporting remnants. Tablet remnants retrieved from the stools of three subjects revealed a percentage nevirapine recovery of 22.8–42.2% of original drug. Subgroup analysis of gender, age, race and geographical region revealed no risk factor association with the finding of remnants. The finding of nevirapine tablet remnants

in stools is a rare event, with an incidence of approximately 2%, restricted to the XR formulation. Affected patients responded fully to antiretroviral therapy by achieving the primary study endpoint and demonstrating no relevant safety risks; nevirapine pharmacokinetic analysis of blood and stool samples ruled out underexposure. “
“Existing tools for rapid cognitive assessment in HIV-positive individuals with mild cognitive deficits lack sensitivity or do not meet psychometric requirements for tracking changes in cognitive ability over time. Seventy-five nondemented BLZ945 cell line HIV-positive patients were evaluated with the Glutamate dehydrogenase Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), a brief battery of standardized neuropsychological tests, and computerized tasks evaluating frontal-executive function and processing speed. Rasch analyses were applied to

the MoCA data set and subsequently to the full set of data from all tests. The MoCA was found to adequately measure cognitive ability as a single, global construct in this HIV-positive cohort, although it showed poorer precision for measuring patients of higher ability. Combining the additional tests with the MoCA resulted in a battery with better psychometric properties that also better targeted the range of abilities in this cohort. This application of modern test development techniques shows a path towards a quick, quantitative, global approach to cognitive assessment with promise both for initial detection and for longitudinal follow-up of cognitive impairment in patients with HIV infection. Mild cognitive impairment has been increasingly recognized as a common feature of chronic HIV infection, even in patients with good viral control on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) [1]. It occurs in 30–50% of patients, depending on both the cohort under study and how the impairment is identified [1–8].

A single colony of this species was transferred to fresh medium a

A single colony of this species was transferred to fresh medium and used for all subsequent experiments. The culture was confirmed as axenic by microscopy, colony morphology and 16S rRNA cloning and analyses. To explore the ability of the isolate to metabolize

a range of electron acceptors, nitrate, Fe(III)-NTA, Fe(III)-oxyhydroxide or Fe(III)-citrate was added (20 mM) to minimal medium with either acetate or glycerol (10 mM) as an electron donor. Electron donor utilization was tested using Fe(III)-citrate (20 mM) as the electron acceptor and lactate, formate, ethanol, glucose, yeast extract, benzoate, acetate or glycerol (10 mM) as potential electron donors. The pH tolerance was assessed using Fe(III)-citrate medium (20 mM) with glycerol (10 mM) as the electron donor at pH ranging from 3.5 to 10. The pH of the medium was adjusted http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ganetespib-sta-9090.html with NaOH or HCl prior to inoculation. The 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region from the bacterial RNA operon was amplified as described previously using primers ITSF and ITSReub (Cardinale et al., 2004). The amplified

products were separated by electrophoresis in Tris-acetate–EDTA gel. DNA was stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under short-wave UV light. Positive microbial community changes identified by the Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) justified further investigation by DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. PCR products were purified using a QIAquick PCR purification kit (Qiagen, UK) and ligated directly into a cloning vector containing topoisomerase I-charged vector arms (Agilent Technologies, UK) prior Selleckchem Roxadustat to transformation into Escherichia coli-competent cells expressing Cre recombinase (Agilent Technologies). White transformants that grew on LB agar containing ampicillin and X-Gal were screened for an insert using PCR. Primers were complementary to the flanking regions of the PCR insertion site of the cloning vector. The conditions for PCR method were as follows: an initial denaturation at

94 °C for 4 min, melting at 94 °C for 30 s, annealing at 55 °C for 30 s, extension at 72 °C for 1 min, 35 cycles, followed by a final extension step at 72 °C for 5 min. The resulting PCR products were purified using an ExoSap protocol, and 2 μL of ExoSap mix (0.058 μL exonuclease I, 0.5 μL Shrimp alkaline buy Gefitinib phosphatase and 1.442 μL QH2O) was added to 5 μL of PCR product and incubated at 37 °C for 30 min followed by 80 °C for 15 min. Nucleotide sequences were determined by the dideoxynucleotide method (Sanger et al., 1977). An ABI Prism BigDye Terminator Cycle Sequencing kit was used in combination with an ABI Prism 877 Integrated Thermal Cycler and ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer (Perkin Elmer Applied Biosystems, UK). Sequences (typically 900 base pairs in length) were analysed against the NCBI (USA) database using the blast program packages and matched to known 16S rRNA gene sequences.

1N, altered the

distribution of actin and 41N In contra

1N, altered the

distribution of actin and 4.1N. In contrast, the KCC2-C568A mutant, which shows a reduced binding affinity to 4.1N, did not affect the cytoskeleton. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between KCC2 and 4.1N plays a key role in the induction of the developmental defects observed in the transgenic embryos. As KCC2-FL and KCC2-ΔNTD had an effect on migration of neural crest cells, we assessed whether ectopic expression could also affect neuronal migration in vitro. C17.2 selleck products cells were transfected with control, KCC2-FL, KCC2-ΔNTD and KCC2-C568A plasmids. After 48 h, a scratch was made through the cell layer and the cells were incubated in serum-reduced medium for 18 h to allow migration in the wound area. In control cultures, the wound area was invaded by a moderate number of cells (Fig. 9A). KCC2-FL (Fig. 9B) and KCC2-ΔNTD (Fig. 9C) transfections significantly reduced the number of migrating cells (73 and 72% of control; P = 0.016 and P = 0.011, respectively). Transfection with KCC2-C568A (Fig. 9D) did not affect the number of cells in the wound area (96% of control; P = 0.627). Thus, KCC2-FL and KCC2-ΔNTD perturbed migration of neuronal cells in vitro, similar to the effect on neural crest migration in vivo. Our work shows that ectopic expression of KCC2 in mouse embryos leads to disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, which in turn interferes

with neuronal differentiation and migration. The results are consistent with a structural role for KCC2 during early neuronal development that is not dependent VE-822 cell line on the ion transport function of KCC2. In several parts of the central nervous system, such as the spinal cord (Delpy et al., 2008) and brainstem

(Balakrishnan et al., 2003; Blaesse et al., 2006), KCC2 is expressed before the onset of functional Cl− extrusion. Moreover, the levels Cell Penetrating Peptide of KCC2 expression in the auditory brainstem do not change at the periods of the hyperpolarizing EGABA shift (Balakrishnan et al., 2003; Vale et al., 2005). It has been suggested that the early expressed protein is inactive and requires regulation of its localization, state of phosphorylation, or oligomerization for functional activation (Vale et al., 2005; Blaesse et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2007; Hartmann et al., 2009). KCC2 shows a high level of expression in the proximity of excitatory synapses and within dendritic spines (Gulyas et al., 2001) and, more recently, is has been shown that KCC2 promotes the development of spines through interaction with the cytoskeleton-associated protein 4.1N (Li et al., 2007). Thus, KCC2 has a morphogenic role that is independent of its ion transport function. This morphogenic role may explain the early presence of KCC2 prior to the hyperpolarizing EGABA shift. The present results show that KCC2 is already endogenously expressed at E9.5 in neuronal cells of mouse embryos. This is earlier than previously shown time points for KCC2 expression (Li et al.

This same state would also have been engaged during the long inte

This same state would also have been engaged during the long inter-trial intervals in the task

described in Parikh et al. Inhibitor Library high throughput (2007). Importantly, parallel experiments employing functional MRI in human subjects revealed coincident basal forebrain and prefrontal activation during incongruent hits, as well as in prefrontal oxygen levels in rats (for details see Howe et al., 2013). Combined, these data support the presence a prefrontal cholinergic mechanism that is preserved across species and supports attentional performance by forcing shifts from monitoring to cue-directed attention. Evidence for the deterministic role of cholinergic transients in attentional performance was obtained from a subsequent set of studies that demonstrated that the generation or suppression of such transients, using optogenetic methods, enhances or reduces, respectively, hit rates in SAT-performing mice (H. Gritton, W.M. Howe & M. Sarter, unpublished observations). Specifically, if transients are evoked to coincide with cues, hit rates increase; this is most robustly demonstrated for trials in which cue illumination is briefest in duration. Correspondingly, if endogenously generated cholinergic transients are suppressed

using opsins that inhibit depolarisation, animals detect fewer cues. These data suggest that cholinergic transients promote a shift to cue-associated response representations. In what is perhaps an even more direct demonstration this website of the causal relationship between phasic cholinergic

signaling and cue ‘detection’, artificially generating a cholinergic transient on non-signal trials increases the likelihood Casein kinase 1 of a false alarm. These induced, ill-timed transients produce false alarms in as many as 50% of such trials (as opposed to < 10% at baseline). This finding supports the hypothesis that cholinergic transients increase the probability for a discrete behavioral response, the reporting of a signal. Generating transients in the absence of signals ‘inserts’ the cholinergic activity normally generated by a detected, incongruent cue. Thus, we hypothesise that cholinergic transients are a sufficient cause for incongruent hits. Clearly, this hypothesis requires more testing, including more stringent manipulations of cholinergic transient activity during controlled sequences of signal and nonsignal trials. The timecourse of cholinergic transients (Fig. 1B) leads to additional speculation about their function. Specifically, cholinergic activity extends beyond the completion of incongruent hits and persists into the subsequent inter-trial interval, peaking at ~ 6 s following the cue (see fig. 2 in Howe et al., 2013). This ongoing activity is not likely to be related to the mediation of the actual hit in that particular trial. Rather, such prolonged cholinergic activity may serve as a reporter that binds action selection with outcome.

coli and are correctly processed Dispase activates S mobaraensi

coli and are correctly processed. Dispase activates S. mobaraensis pro-TGase when incubated in a Tris–HCl buffer at pH 8 (Marx et al., 2007). To study the activation efficiency of pro-TGase in culture supernatants, the dispase solution was added directly to the culture supernatant of E. coli expressing pBB1-1010 or pBB1-1020. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the pro-TGase secreted by E. coli expressing pBB1-1010 was rapidly transformed (within 30 min) into a smaller protein with a

molecular weight corresponding to that buy ICG-001 of the mature TGase (37.8 kDa), and TGase activity increased during the process (Fig. 2d,e). In addition, the intensity of the band corresponding to TGase and the TGase activity remained constant (approximately 4.5 U mL−1) in the later stages of activation (Fig. 2d,e). As expected, activation of the pro-TGase secreted by E. coli expressing pBB1-1020 showed a similar trend (data not shown). These results demonstrate that the secreted pro-TGase is directly activated by dispase and is not continuously degraded. It has been reported that the N-terminal pro-region of thermophilic subtilase greatly influences the secretion of its zymogen in E. coli (Fang et al., 2010). To elucidate the role of the TGase pro-region during pro-TGase secretion, N-terminal deletion mutants within the TGase pro-region were constructed. Each deletion was designed to remove a conserved part of

the pro-region of TGase as determined by the alignment of sequences from different Streptomyces strains (Fig. 1b). When the first six N-terminal amino acids of pro-TGase were removed, the secretion of the corresponding pro-TGase derivative decreased GSK2118436 datasheet (Fig. 3b), and intracellular accumulation of

the soluble pro-TGase derivative was observed PDK4 (Fig. 3c). After removal of the first 16 N-terminal amino acids of the pro-region, neither extracellular (Fig. 3b) nor intracellular soluble (Fig. 3c) pro-TGase derivatives were detected. However, an insoluble pro-TGase derivative was present (Fig. 3d). Further deletion of amino acids at the N-terminal of pro-TGase produced only insoluble pro-TGase derivatives (Fig. 3d). These results show that the pro-region of TGase is essential for TGase secretion and solubility in E. coli. Without disruption of cells, the efficient secretion of TGase in E. coli would undoubtedly simplify the recovery of the enzyme and the screening of mutants for directed evolution. In this study, S. hygroscopicus pro-TGase was efficiently secreted in E. coli using the TGase signal peptide or the pelB signal peptide. After activation in the culture supernatant, the yield of secreted TGase was 4.5 U mL−1, which is three times the amount of the TGase produced intracellularly (Marx et al., 2007). However, the S. mobaraensis pro-TGase that is fused to the pelB signal peptide failed to be secreted in E. coli (Marx et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2009). It has been reported that export of the glycolytic enzyme in E.

Several ongoing randomized, controlled trials will provide furthe

Several ongoing randomized, controlled trials will provide further information on the impact of HSV suppressive therapy on the acquisition and transmission of HIV as well as the temporality of HSV-2/HIV co-infection. Although in India HIV prevention interventions have been concentrated on high-risk groups and their immediate contacts [19], the findings of the present study suggest that seronegative individuals in long-term discordant relationships are at high risk of infection as a result of continued sexual exposure. The proportion of infections occurring in married couples is likely to increase as the epidemic matures and spreads beyond conventional ‘core groups’. As HAART has increasingly

become accessible across click here the developing world, the relationship between ART and sexual risk-taking behaviours has become more important. As ART significantly

reduces a patient’s viral load and leads to improvements in physical health and quality of life, studies from the developed world have suggested that ART-experienced individuals may be more likely to resume sexual activity, including MK-1775 solubility dmso unsafe sex, as a result of ‘treatment optimism’ [1,5,37]. However, ART also reduces the infectiousness of individuals who receive therapy, which could prevent new infections and have important ramifications on the future course of the HIV epidemic [38]. In the current study, patients who were in seroconverting relationships were less likely to be receiving ART. Studies from different African settings have indicated that access to ART is associated with a lower likelihood of risky sexual behaviours in comparison to patients who do not have access to ART [30,39,40]; a study from Uganda reported that ART-experienced patients were more likely to report consistent condom use, receive treatment for STIs and disclose their HIV status to their spouses [40]. Although a recent population-level triclocarban study from South Africa found that the impact

of HAART in reducing the sexual transmission of HIV would be small under current WHO guidelines in which many patients may have CD4 cell counts above the 200 cells/μL cut-off to initiate therapy but have high HIV RNA plasma load [41]. The current understanding of the role of ART in the sexual transmission of HIV in serodiscordant couples will be improved through the randomized controlled HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 of the National Institutes of Health [42]. This interventional study will help explain how ART can make HIV-infected individuals less infectious. Close to one-third of patients (index cases) who transmitted HIV to their spouse between 6 and 12 months of care consumed alcohol on a regular basis, which was higher than patients in persistently discordant relationships. Alcohol use can lead to increased sexual risk-taking behaviour and decreased condom use [43].

Urine and capillary ketone measurements, blood gas analysis and/o

Urine and capillary ketone measurements, blood gas analysis and/or venous bicarbonate measurement were analysed together with the clinical outcome of either admission or discharge of the patient. IDH inhibitor drugs Capillary β-hydroxybutyrate measurement gave a strong negative correlation (r -0.771; p<0.001) with serum bicarbonate concentration. Urine ketone measurement showed a weaker negative correlation (r -0.493; p<0.001) with bicarbonate levels.

There was no difference in the ability to predict hospital admission between blood ketone measurement and urine ketone measurement )positive predictive value 84.6% [95% confidence interval 73.2–95.9%] vs positive predictive value 75.0% [95% confidence interval 62.2–87.8%], respectively). The findings of this study suggest that blood ketone measurement is a better predictor of acid base status than urine ketone measurement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. “
“Anaemia is often an unrecognised complication of diabetes that has an adverse effect on the progression

of diabetes related complications. Anaemia predicts mortality in diabetes related chronic kidney disease (CKD). Contributors to its development include absolute and/or functional iron deficiency and erythropoietin insufficiency. This study aimed to look at the prevalence of anaemia and markers of iron deficiency in patients with diabetes related CKD. An analysis was done of the results from all patients (225 men, 93 women; mean age 70 years) attending joint Thalidomide diabetes–renal clinics over a 12-month period. Haemoglobin (Hb) was measured in 88%. The mean Hb was 12.6g/dl in men and 11.7g/dl in women. A total of 21.5% Vincristine in vitro (11.5% men, 10% women) had Hb <11g/dl who should have anaemia management as per National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines. Among the anaemic population, CKD stage 3 was present in 25% of men and in 8% of women, with CKD stage 4 present in 20% of men and in 32% of women. Fifty-three percent had absolute iron deficiency (serum ferritin <100μg/L) and 41% had inadequate iron stores (serum ferritin between 100 and 500μg/L). Functional iron deficiency defined

by serum ferritin >100μg/L and red cell hypochromasia ≥6% was noted in 21.6% of anaemic patients. Anaemia is a frequent finding in patients with diabetes related CKD. A significant proportion of patients had functional iron deficiency that required iron therapy for optimisation of their iron stores before starting erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Measurement of red cell hypochromasia is a valuable tool to detect this group of patients. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons. “
“The aims of this study were to translate the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (MDKT) into the Malaysian language, and to examine the psychometric properties of the Malaysian version. A standard translation procedure was used to create the Malaysian version of the MDKT from the original English version.