, 2001 and Ahmed et al., 2004), which is consistent with the groundwater chemistry being strongly regulated by the precipitation/dissolution of carbonate minerals (Bhowmick et al., 2013). The fact that conditions are thermodynamically favorable for precipitation of siderite within the aquifer sediments provides a plausible explanation for the apparent decoupling between As and Fe observed in Fig. 6. Seventy-seven percent of groundwater samples exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) GLV for Mn of 0.91 μM (Fig. 6). Exposure to elevated Mn in drinking water is associated Src inhibitor with neurotoxic effects in children and diminished intellectual function (Wasserman
et al., 2006). Mn oxides, found in soils and sediments, are highly reactive and strong scavengers of heavy metals and trace elements (Post, 1999), including As. The presence of manganese oxides decreases As availability and As mobilization both by the oxidation of arsenite and sorption of arsenate (Lafferty et al., 2011). This behavior is consistent with the observed negative correlation between As and Mn evident in Fig. 5. Groundwater Selleck Forskolin was slightly saturated to undersaturated with respect to rhodocrosite.
Slightly to undersaturated groundwater with respect to rhodocrosite has also been observed in the Bengal Basin (e.g. Mukherjee et al., 2008). Precipitation of rhodocrosite may occur in reducing environments and removes Mn(II) from groundwater (Mukherjee et al., 2008). The negative correlation observed
Methane monooxygenase between AsTot and rhodocrosite (Fig. 7b) tentatively suggests that rhodocrosite may be a potential host phase of As. However, further work would be required to confirm this suggestion. In addition to As and Mn contamination, about 40% of samples had fluoride concentrations exceeding the WHO GLV of 0.07 μM (see Fig. 6). Khadka et al. (2004) also detected F in the tubewell water of Nawalparasi. However, they also reported a positive correlation between F and As concentrations, a feature which was not observed by this study. A desorption/adsorption study of Kim et al. (2012) indicated that if Fe(III) (oxyhdr)oxide is the host for both As and F−, then co-contamination may be induced by the reductive dissolution of the Fe(III) (oxyhdr)oxide in reducing aquifers. Exposure to elevated arsenic and fluoride in drinking water (>WHO GLV) can cause endemic arsenicosis and endemic fluorosis, affect the immune system, reduce IQ levels and decrease intellectuality of children (Wang et al., 2006, Wasserman et al., 2004, Rocha-Amador et al., 2009 and Rocha-Amador et al., 2011). Dissolution and precipitation of Ca minerals (such as fluorite and calcite) and F-adsorption–desorption typically control fluoride in groundwater (Guo et al., 2012). The majority of the groundwater samples here are saturated with CaCO3 and undersaturated with respect to CaF2.