“Physical exercise has beneficial effects on brain health

“Physical exercise has beneficial effects on brain health and cognition. It uses the processes of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity to promote brain health, upregulating proteins related to cognitive (Ding et al., 2006) and mitochondrial function (Kirchner et al., 2008). Exercise has also protective effects against several neurological diseases including Parkinson’s

ABT-199 disease (Smith and Zigmond, 2003), Alzheimer’s disease (Mirochnic et al., 2009), and ischemic stroke (Stummer et al., 1994). In addition, exercise has been associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment and dementia with age (Laurin et al., 2001). Both acute and chronic exercises increase hippocampal activity (Holschneider et al., 2003 and Holschneider et al., 2007). Exercise induces hippocampal synaptic plasticity mainly by enhancing synaptic efficacy and the expression of molecules involved in learning and memory (Farmer et al., 2004, Vaynman et al., 2003 and Vaynman et al., 2004). Increase of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and their mRNAs have been widely reported after exercise (Berchtold et al., 2010, Gomez-Pinilla et al., 1997 and Neeper et al., 1996). Components of the presynaptic vesicle membrane, such as synapsin I (SYN) anti-PD-1 antibody and synaptophysin (SYP) are also found to be increased

after exercise training (Vaynman et al., 2006). Exercise induces long-term potentiation (LTP) (van Praag et al., 1999a) and increased glutamatergic activity (Leung et al., 2006), but the simultaneous increase

of the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as BDNF, promotes neuroprotection against the excitotoxic effects of glutamate in cell cultures (Jiang et al., 2005). There is evidence that treadmill exercise increases the number of astrocytes and the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the frontoparietal cortex and dorsolateral striatum Amobarbital of exercised rats (Li et al., 2005) and stimulates the proliferation of astrocytes in the subgranular zone (SGZ) (Uda et al., 2006). Voluntary physical activity is also known to induce adult hippocampal neurogenesis, increasing cell proliferation and survival (Ehninger and Kempermann, 2003, van Praag et al., 1999a and van Praag et al., 1999b). In addition, structural neuronal proteins may also be affected by exercise due to their plastic characteristics in face of various stimuli (for reviews, see Sánchez et al., 2000 and Julien, 1999). Considering that for humans the recommended guideline for the practice of physical activity states at least 30 min of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week (Hillman et al., 2008), here we used an animal model of short-term, moderate intensity treadmill exercise protocol (Ferreira et al.

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