Six hundred and one migraine patients completed measures of pain-specific disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, von Korff scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 Health Survey), habitual well-being
(Marburg questionnaire), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). A significant increase of psychosocial impairment with the number of headache days per month was found at lower headache frequencies, but leveled off at higher headache frequencies. Visual inspection and spline interpolation suggested that the turning point Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor high throughput screening was not exactly at 15 headache days per month but rather around 13.3 (confidence interval: 8.9-17.7) days. Accordingly, significant correlations between headache days and psychosocial impairment were found in the group with ≤13 headache days per month (Spearman’s rho = 0.25, P < .001) but not in the group with >13 headache days (rho = −0.02, n.s.). These results suggest that a meaningful turning point in psychosocial impairment associated with migraine is
located around 13.3 headache days per month, somewhat below the 15-headache days criterion that by definition separates chronic from episodic migraine. However, confidence intervals surrounding the turning point were large. Further studies will be needed to more exactly localize the turning point. “
“Objective.— To determine if 5-HT1D receptors are located in the sphenopalatine ganglion. Background.— While Trametinib solubility dmso the 5-HT1D receptor has been described in sensory and sympathetic ganglia in the head, it was not known whether
they were also located in parasympathetic ganglia. Methods.— We used retrograde labeling combined with immunohistochemistry to examine 5-HT1D receptor immunoreactivity in rat sphenopalatine ganglion neurons that project to the lacrimal gland, nasal mucosa, cerebral vasculature, and trigeminal ganglion. Results.— We found 5-HT1D receptor immunoreactivity in nerve terminals around postganglionic cell bodies within the sphenopalatine ganglion. All 5-HT1D-immunoreactive Pregnenolone terminals were also immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide but not vesicular acetylcholine transporter, suggesting that they were sensory and not preganglionic parasympathetic fibers. Our retrograde labeling studies showed that approximately 30% of sphenopalatine ganglion neurons innervating the lacrimal gland, 23% innervating the nasal mucosa, and 39% innervating the trigeminal ganglion were in apparent contact with 5-HT1D receptor containing nerve terminals. Conclusion.— These data suggest that 5-HT1D receptors within primary afferent neurons that innervate the sphenopalatine ganglion are in a position to modulate the excitability of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons that innervate the lacrimal gland and nasal mucosa, as well as the trigeminal ganglion.