0 mm x 2 3 mm) were harvested from porcine eyes and treated by in

0 mm x 2 3 mm) were harvested from porcine eyes and treated by incubation with genipin at concentrations of 1.00%, 0.25%, and 010%. Parallel corneal strips from the same eye were used as untreated controls After treatment at 20 degrees C for 40 minutes, tensile strain measurements were performed

in a biomaterial tester. Porcine button corneas were treated with genipin 0 25% for 15 minutes and then digested by bacterial collagenase. Treated AZD9291 price and untreated corneas were evaluated by light microscopy.

RESULTS: Young modulus and stiffness in treated corneas increased in a concentration-dependent manner Genipin increased resistance to corneal collagenase 5-fold in comparison with the controls. A decrease in the interlamellar space selleck in treated corneas was also observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Corneal collagen crosslinking induced with genipin produced a significant increase in biomechanical

strength and resistance to bacterial collagenase This crosslinker could be useful in treating corneal ectasia and corneal infectious and noninfectious diseases involving corneal melting.”
“Dense TiN and TiC samples were prepared by hot pressing using micrometric powders. Xenon species (simulating rare gas fission products) were then implanted into the ceramics. The samples were annealed for 1 h at 1500 degrees C under several degraded vacuums with P(O2) varying from 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) mbars. The oxidation resistance of the samples and their retention properties with respect to preimplanted xenon species were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and nuclear backscattering spectrometry. Results indicate that TiC is resistant to oxidation and does not release xenon for P(O2) <= 6 x 10(-6) mbars. When P(O2) increases, geometric

oxide crystallites appear at the surface depending on the orientation and size of TiC grains. These oxide phases are Ti(2)O(3), Ti(3)O(5), and TiO(2). Apparition of oxide crystallites LCL161 clinical trial is associated with the beginning of xenon release. TiC surface is completely covered by the oxide phases at P(O2) = 2 x 10(-4) mbars up to a depth of 3 mu m and the xenon is then completely released. For TiN samples, the results show a progressive apparition of oxide crystallites (Ti(3)O(5) mainly) at the surface when P(O2) increases. The presence of the oxide crystallites is also directly correlated with xenon release, the more oxide crystallites are growing the more xenon is released. TiN surface is completely covered by an oxide layer at P(O2) = 2 x 10(-4) mbars up to 1 mu m. A correlation between the initial fine microstructure of TiN and the properties of the growing layer is suggested. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.

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