01 (0.94–1.07) BMI 1.01 (0.89–1.15) 1.01 (0.88–1.13) 1.16 (1.00–1.35) Hip BMD 0.18 (0.01–3.20) 0.03 (0.002–0.49)** 0.004 (0.00–0.20)** Women (n = 92) (n = 101) (n = 44) ABI < 0.9 0.87 (0.47–1.63) 1.47 (0.75–2.87) 0.84 (0.31–2.26) Age (years) 1.00 (0.97–1.04) 1.06 (1.02–1.10)** 0.98 (0.93–1.03) BMI 0.99 (0.92–1.07) 1.13 (1.05–1.21)* 1.05 (0.95–1.15) Hip BMD 0.07 (0.01–0.58)** 0.005 (0.01–0.04)** 0.12 (0.01–2.30) Current estrogen 1.19 (0.70–2.03) 1.62 (0.92–2.86) 1.05 (0.49–2.22) Rancho Bernardo Study 1992–1996 and 1999–2002.
Multivariable models also included current smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes, TC/HDL, and kidney disease—all LY2874455 purchase variables were not significant predictors of fractures *p < 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01 Discussion In this study, PAD defined as an ABI ≤ 0.9 was not independently associated with BMD, osteoporosis, or osteoporotic fractures in either sex. In accord with other studies, hip BMD was an P505-15 datasheet independent risk factor for vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in both sexes [16–20]. The increasing odds for a vertebral fracture with increasing BMI observed in women in selleck this study were unexpected and could be spurious. A high BMI has
been shown to protect the bone, and low BMI is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in weight-bearing appendicular bones [21, 22], but the effect of BMI on the spine has been less consistent. Three large population-based studies found a weak  or absent association [24, 25] between bodyweight and prevalent or incident vertebral fracture in both sexes. In
contrast, increasing bodyweight was associated with a reduced risk of a first vertebral fracture in women in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures . We were unable to examine incident vertebral fractures because X-rays were not obtained in the follow-up visit. Previous studies examining the cross-sectional association between osteoporosis and PAD have reported weak or absent associations. Vogt and collaborators  studied 1,292 women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures with a mean age of 71 years and found an association between the ABI and BMD at the femoral neck, but the association was not independent many of BMI. Van der Klift and collaborators  studied 3,053 women and 2,215 men aged 60 to 70 years from the Rotterdam Study and found that PAD was associated with lower BMD at the femoral neck in women but not in men, with no associations found between PAD and lumbar spine in either sex. Mangiafico and collaborators  reported an 18.2% prevalence of PAD in women with osteoporosis versus 3.8% in women with normal BMD; lower BMD at the femoral neck was associated with PAD independent of BMI, smoking, lipid levels, blood pressure, or other risk factors for atherosclerosis. Different results have been reported from recent small case-control studies of patients with advanced arterial disease.