05) PDGF-BB mRNA correlated significantly to thickness of LF (r

05). PDGF-BB mRNA correlated significantly to thickness of LF (r = 0.41) and the severity of fibrosis (r = 0.69) (P < 0.05).\n\nConclusion. A higher PDGF-BB expression existed in the hypertrophied LF of patients with LSS and could be a risk factor of the fibrosis.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThis review is designed to update the general pediatrician with information about current child maltreatment literature. The authors have selected salient articles, which inform daily practice of any

professional involved in the care of children who may be at risk of child abuse.\n\nRecent findings\n\nThe field of child abuse pediatrics continues to engender controversy in both medical journals and courtrooms. As scrutiny about selleckchem the basis for the diagnosis increases, clinicians and researchers work to build a solid base of scientific evidence with thorough and well-designed

studies. This is most evident with regards to abusive head trauma, wherein both lay and scientific press challenge the possibility that infants can be severely injured or killed by shaking, blunt force trauma, or both.\n\nSummary\n\nChild abuse pediatrics is a well-established and credible medical field. Although child physical and sexual abuse are age-old problems, public acknowledgement and intervention models are relatively new, and medical literature continues to reflect an increasing and deeper understanding of the impact of abuse throughout the world.”
“Generally in birds, the classic sex roles of male competition and female AR-13324 choice result in females providing most offspring care while males face uncertain parentage. In less than 5% of species, Copanlisib cell line however, reversed courtship sex roles lead to predominantly male care and low extra-pair paternity. These role-reversed species usually have reversed sexual size dimorphism and polyandry, confirming that sexual selection acts most strongly on the sex with the smaller parental investment and

accordingly higher potential reproductive rate. We used parentage analyses and observations from three field seasons to establish the social and genetic mating system of pheasant coucals, Centropus phasianinus, a tropical nesting cuckoo, where males are much smaller than females and provide most parental care. Pheasant coucals are socially monogamous and in this study males produced about 80% of calls in the dawn chorus, implying greater male sexual competition. Despite the substantial male investments, extra-pair paternity was unusually high for a socially monogamous, duetting species. Using two or more mismatches to determine extra-pair parentage, we found that 11 of 59 young (18.6%) in 10 of 21 broods (47.6%) were not sired by their putative father. Male incubation, starting early in the laying sequence, may give the female opportunity and reason to seek these extra-pair copulations. Monogamy, rather than the polyandry and sex-role reversal typical of its congener, C.

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