It is important to note that in the International Classification of Headache Selleckchem Copanlisib Disorders,
2nd Edition revised, MOH diagnosis no longer requires the improvement of headaches after withdrawal of the overused medication. In clinical practice, the common scenario is a patient with episodic migraine (EM) that transforms to chronic migraine (CM) in the setting of overusing 1 or more classes of abortive drugs. There is an increase in frequency and intensity of headache attacks and enhanced sensitivity to stimuli that would trigger these attacks. Since 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration in the prescribing information for onabotulinumtoxinA approved a definition of chronic migraine as a headache occurring 15 or more days per month, for 4 or more hours per day. This definition covers both primary and secondary headaches, and includes CM, CDH, as well as MOH. CDH has a prevalence of 4-5%, and the annual average incidence of new-onset CM in patients with EM is 2.5%.3-6 Pediatric CM prevalence in the United States is 1.7%. MOH prevalence is estimated in about 1-2% of the
general population and Compound Library is overwhelmingly more prevalent in women than in men.9-11 An epidemiological study in Taiwan of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 14 (N = 7900) found a prevalence of 1.5% for CDH. MOH was present in 20% of the CDH group, representing 0.3% of the study population. learn more In specialized headache centers, the prevalence of MOH can be as high as 70% among referred patients, and if its high socioeconomic impact is taken into account (work absenteeism, recurrent emergency room visits, hospital
admissions, and unnecessary diagnostic tests), MOH is likely to be one of the most if not the most costly neurological disorder known. Piazza et al, studying a group of children and adolescents coming for treatment at a tertiary care center in Italy (n = 118), found MOH in 9.3% of patients. When only the subset of patients with CDH was analyzed, the incidence of MOH increased to 20.8%, showing that MOH is prevalent in children and adolescents. The MOH population, if compared with patients with EM, are more likely to be women, have lower education level, married, unemployed, have migraine remission during pregnancy, be menopausal, constipated, do not use oral contraceptives, have a higher utilization of health care resources, and be on polypharmacy, especially sedative-hypnotics and antihypertensive medications. The general quality of life of MOH patients is worse than patients with episodic headaches, as measured by the General Health Questionaire-28.17 Also, the results from the quality of life short form-36 (SF-36) health survey revealed a decreased score in all health-related domains for patient with MOH compared with healthy individuals, with highest differences for generalized body pain and physical activity.