10 Lesions in CL patients contain high levels

10 Lesions in CL patients contain high levels AZD2281 order of CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), CX chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9)/MIG and CXCL10/IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), whereas patients with DCL express CCL3/MIP-1α.11 Thus, the levels of cytokines/chemokines are modulated differently depending on the clinical forms of the disease and the causative species of Leishmania. There are limited studies reporting the cellular immune responses in CL caused by L. tropica.12,13 Comprehensive studies in human CL caused by infection with L. tropica are lacking

and an open field awaits the intrepid investigator. In the present study, we examined the profile of circulating and localized immune response in patients with CL. The study was further extended in subjects from the region where CL is endemic to investigate the outcome of the immune response in patients cured of CL upon treatment with different drugs. This study led to the identification of key cytokines that determine the clinical outcome of the disease and helped in understanding the immunological pathways that may be involved in the pathogenesis of CL caused by L. tropica. Patients

with suspected CL were recruited between April 2006 and April 2008 in the Department of Skin, STD & Leprosy, S. P. Medical College, Bikaner (Rajasthan), India, and the study was approved by the Ethical committee.

Of the 31 patients with CL who were included in this study, 23 (74·19%) were male and 8 (25·81%) were Ixazomib cost female. The majority of patients were in the age range of 5–50 years, with the mean age being 33·48 ± 3·47 [standard error (SE)] years. The history of CL cases was 1–7 months of onset of lesions at the time of diagnosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by laboratory demonstration of the parasite others by direct microscopy of a tissue smear. The causative organism was established as L. tropica, as described previously.3 Patients were given treatment with sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) intralesionally, 0·5 ml/cm2 of lesion, twice a week for 5–7 injections, depending on the lesion and its response to treatment. Alternatively, in patients with multiple lesions, and in paediatric patients, rifampicin (RFM) (20 mg/kg body weight) was given for 3 months orally. Skin biopsies were taken before starting the treatment and in 14 patients 2–4 weeks after the last dose of treatment, in clinically cured patients. Six normal skin biopsy samples were collected as controls from healthy volunteers. Skin biopsies of 5–10 mm were taken from the border of the ulcers in RNAlater® (Ambion, Austin, TX), total RNA was isolated using Trizol reagent and complementary DNA (cDNA) was prepared using a SuperScript RNase H-Reverse Transcriptase kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA).

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