[125, 126] Since activation of sulphatide reactive type II NKT ce

[125, 126] Since activation of sulphatide reactive type II NKT cells inhibits the effector functions of pathogenic conventional Th1/Th17 cells in peripheral organs VX-809 in vivo as well as in affected tissues such as the CNS and liver, the targeting of these cells leads to a broader therapeutic response than the targeting of type I NKT cells alone for intervention in autoimmune disease. Although some studies suggest that

type I NKT cells may cross-regulate type II NKT cell activity,[127] additional studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of regulation involved. It is clear that activation of type I NKT cells with ╬▒GalCer leads to a cascade of events that modulates the activity of several cell types, including DCs, B cells, NK cells and neutrophils.[2, 3, 128] It is likely that sulphatide-mediated induction of anergy in type

I NKT cells also modulates the activity of these other cell types. As mentioned above, our data clearly indicate a significant alteration in the activity of DC populations following sulphatide-mediated activation of type II NKT cells. Current studies are investigating the roles of other cell types that are stimulated after type II NKT cell activation in the presence and absence buy Tamoxifen of type I NKT cells. Immune regulatory activity of NKT cells can be mediated by the cytokines secreted by NKT cells themselves or following their interaction with other immune cells, including DCs, Treg cells, monocytes and B cells. Hence, activation of NKT cell subsets can result in the deviation of a cytokine secretion profile in MHC-restricted CD4+ T cells

Anidulafungin (LY303366) towards either a pronounced Th1- or Th2-like response. Generally, for experimental diseases in which Th1 or Th17 cells mediate pathology, immune deviation of the pathogenic T-cell response towards a Th2-like phenotype following type I NKT cell activation with ╬▒GalCer or its analogues is protective from disease. For example, protection from type 1 diabetes by NKT cells is associated with an elevated Th2 cytokine profile in pathogenic islet protein-reactive CD4+ T cells,[4, 129, 130] whereas a Th1 bias correlates with disease severity.[3, 109] In spite of this finding, a Th1 to Th2 cytokine profile shift in conventional CD4+ T cells alone may not be sufficient to prevent type 1 diabetes in NOD mice[71, 131] or EAE in susceptible mice.[19, 98, 109-112] Analyses of cytokine profiles secreted by both activated NKT cells and different APCs after their encounters in vivo will also expand our growing knowledge of the mechanisms of leucocyte communication, as described above.

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