(2009) have shown is required for maturation of the S-layer, but

(2009) have shown is required for maturation of the S-layer, but that is not essential for virulence. Of the two proteins classified as ABC transporters, neither conformed to the expected architecture for such a protein, namely, a leader

peptide containing an N- and C-domain completely lacking an intervening hydrophobic domain, in addition to a double-glycine motif N-terminal of the signal peptide cleavage site. All the other ‘transport’ proteins identified contained a significant hydrophobic domain between the N- and the C-domain of the predicted signal peptide, in addition to a number of other motifs usually associated with the twin arginine translocation or Sec secretion pathways. None of the 23 proteins contained any C-terminus cell wall anchor motifs commonly found in Gram-positive bacteria,

such as LPxTG, NPQTN or TLxTC (Dramsi et al., 2005; Desvaux et al., 2006). As in our previous work, we used the pathway reconstruction Dorsomorphin molecular weight tool biocyc (Karp Tofacitinib molecular weight et al., 2005) to analyse pathways inferred from our proteomics dataset. The snapshot of C. difficile metabolism presented here reflects the nutritional complexity of BHI broth, which contains glucose, proteose peptone and bovine BHI solids. We could, therefore, reconstruct a number of key central metabolic pathways (Djordjevic et al., 2003) that would be expected to be active in clostridial cells including glycolysis, mixed acid fermentation and fermentation of amino acids Celecoxib (Gottschalk, 1979) (see Figs. S1-S3). The metabolic processes we have identified in C. difficile

are, therefore, broadly similar to those described in a recent proteomic investigation of the Gram-negative gut anaerobe, Fusobacterium varium. Potrykus et al. (2008) report that F. varium may play both beneficial and pathogenic roles in the human gut. While the antics of C. difficile left unchecked have given it a deservedly bad reputation (Heap et al., 2009), its ability to produce butyrate (Fig. S3), as is known to occur in F. varium, could mean that in asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile, the organism has the potential to contribute to colonocyte health. Such a counterintuitive hypothesis highlights the need, not only from a basic science perspective but also from a position of concern for public health, to know the frequency of asymptomatic C. difficile carriers within the general population: therefore, we see an urgent requirement to develop a better understanding of C. difficile biology within the human microbiome. The pathogenicity of C. difficile is dependent on a combination of toxin synthesis, p-cresol production and a diverse range of amino acid fermentations (Kim et al., 2008). Leucine is reported to be indispensible for the growth of this organism and may be metabolized by a reductive pathway, to isocaproate, or by means of an alternative oxidative pathway in which isovalerate and ammonia are produced.

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