Remarkably, this transfer resulted in masculinization of the microbial composition, increased testosterone levels, and metabolite profile of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in female recipients, demonstrating, amazingly, that male microbiota provides sex-specific protective effects against T1D pathogenesis (Markle et al., 2013). Notably, commensal bacteria may be directly
responsible for testosterone production and its effects on metabolism, as both male and female NOD mice exhibited altered testosterone profiles and T1D-like pathology when reared under germ-free conditions. These studies are among the first to demonstrate the ability of microbial transfer to impact disease risk and resilience. www.selleckchem.com/products/NVP-AUY922.html Behavioral phenotypes also appear to be transmissible via the microbiota, as germ-free NIH Swiss mice inoculated with
cecal contents from BALB/c mice, an innately anxious strain of mice, displays a behavioral phenotype similar to the donor species (Bercik et al., 2011). These combined results have important implications for the etiology and potential treatment of functional gastrointestinal intestinal disorders, which are female biased in presentation and comorbid with psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and depression (Chang et al., 2006, Mikocka-Walus et al., 2008 and O’Mahony et al., 2014b). Thus, microbiota transfer studies across a variety of experimental conditions will undoubtedly expand our understanding of the role of the microbiota in biological click here processes, including brain development, immunity, and metabolic function. Calpain The quality of the early postnatal environment influences
the course of development, which in turn determines the health of the individual across the life span. Transmission of individual differences in behavioral and physiological responses to environmental stimuli is a key factor in predicting stress-related disorders. To date, alterations in maternal care, diet, and stress are known influences on sex-specific outcomes related to offspring disease vulnerability (Bale et al., 2010). Vertical transmission of maternal microbes to offspring is emerging as a factor in transgenerational disease risk and resilience. The vaginal microbiome influences early-host microbe interactions in the neonate, and therefore affects long-term programming of microbial colonization patterns, immune function, metabolic status, neurodevelopment, and disease risk into adulthood. From a clinical perspective, screening of the vaginal flora during late pregnancy may also provide critical insight into the early colonization patterns of the newborn gastrointestinal tract and associated disease risk.