Seroepidemiologic studies of influenza among well-returned travelers indicate seroconversion in 2.8%,6 and among febrile returning travelers, the incidence of influenza is estimated to be between 5 and 15%.13 Thus, our findings likely represent a significant underestimate of cases of influenza among ill-returned travelers. High hospitalization rates potentially indicate that only more severe infections this website were evaluated at a GeoSentinel site, thereby further underestimating the burden of influenza in travelers. Third, during influenza season in temperate countries, confirmatory diagnostic tests are not often sent once influenza is circulating within a community,
and this study included only confirmed or probable diagnoses. Fourth, absence of immunization history limits our ability to quantify true potential influenza preventability in this cohort. Fifth, given the short incubation period of influenza, we cannot exclude the possibility that some travelers, especially those returning home during their influenza Caspase-dependent apoptosis season, or residing in the tropics or ESEACN, became infected en
route home or after travel. Influenza acquired abroad versus from the country of residence would be impossible to distinguish clinically. Finally, our data do not permit estimation of incidence rates or destination-specific numerical risks for influenza.7,14 This is the single largest analysis of latitudinal patterns of influenza in travelers, to date, and is derived from a multicenter, heterogeneous population, reflecting the spectrum of travel demographics and destinations over a 10-year period. Alternate hemisphere and out-of-season influenza vaccine availability may benefit a small proportion of travelers. As noted previously, while knowledge of influenza prevention among travelers appears to be good, translation of this knowledge into uptake of prevention measures such as vaccination, antiviral prophylaxis, and hand hygiene among travelers remains low.15,16 Proportionate morbidity estimates by region of travel
can inform pre-travel consultation and emphasize the cAMP ease of acquisition of infections such as influenza during travel. These data can inform broad-level decision-making in travel medicine, public health, and health care policy. GeoSentinel: the Global Surveillance Network of the International Society of Travel Medicine is supported by Cooperative Agreement U50/CCU412347 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The funding source (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) had no role in study design, data analysis and interpretation, or in writing the manuscript. A. K. B., F. v. S., P. L. L., E. S., and M. E. W. state that they have no conflicts of interest to declare. F. C. has received an honorarium to attend the Tamiflu Advisory Board once in 2006. P. G. was sponsored by Sanofi-Pasteur to attend conferences. J. T.