People older than 50 years face increased risks of UV-associated cataracts,
pterygia, and eyelid skin cancers. Elderly persons who have had cataracts removed and intraocular lenses placed face increased risks Ku-0059436 cell line of retinal damage from UV exposures. For additional protection from blue visible light (400–440 nm) not essential for sight, Roberts has recommended that persons over age 50 wear “specially designed sunglasses or contact lenses to reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration.” Historically, sunscreens were developed for protection from sunburn from UVB only. Today, most sunscreens are composed of combinations of organic chemicals to absorb UV light (padimate, oxybenzone), selleck compound inorganic chemicals to filter and reflect UV light (titanium dioxide, zinc oxide), and newer organic particles to both absorb and reflect UV light (Parsol®, Tinosorb®, Uvinul®). Several factors can significantly affect the protective capabilities of a sunscreen’s SPF number including amount of initial sunscreen applied, altitude, season, time of day, sweating, water exposure, UV
reflection by snow or water, and skin type. Cool air or water temperatures bathing skin surfaces may influence personal perception of the felt need to apply sunscreens. Cool skin temperatures do not offer UV protection. Sunscreens should be applied to sun-exposed skin throughout the year, even during the coldest seasons, and especially when solar UV radiation can Miconazole be magnified at altitude or by reflections off ice, snow, or water. A sunscreen with an SPF of 15 properly applied (defined as 2 mg/cm2 of sun-exposed skin) will protect one from 93% of UVB radiation; SPF 30 is protective against 97% of UVB; SPF 50 is protective against 98% of UVB. Sunscreens should always be broad-spectrum products that block both UVA and UVB rays; and hypoallergenic and noncomedogenic, so as not to cause rashes, or clog pores, causing acne. For children younger than 6 months, always
use hats, clothing, and shading, rather than sunscreens. For children older than 6 months, always use photoprotective clothing and sunscreens of SPF 15 and higher depending on skin types. Reapplications of sunscreens, especially after swimming or excessive sweating, are important practices for vacationing travelers to adopt in high UV index areas.[29, 44] Rai and Srinivas have recommended that individuals should initially apply sunscreens (2 mg/cm2) 30 minutes prior to sun exposures and reapply every 2 to 3 hours thereafter. However, earlier reapplications are indicated following vigorous activities that remove sunscreens, such as swimming, sweating, and towel drying.