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CL, PF, SR, and MH performed the experiments. ACN, CC, SR, and RP conceived the study, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. CC and SR carried out the statistical analyses. Interleukin-2 receptor ACN and CC prepared the figures and tables. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Symbiosis is a widespread natural phenomenon that has been postulated as one of the main sources of evolutionary innovation [1, 2], and it is an example of compositional evolution involving the combination of systems of independent genetic material . Many insects have established mutualistic symbiotic relationships, particularly with intracellular bacteria that inhabit specialized cells of the animal host (bacteriocytes). In most insect-bacteria endosymbioses described to date, host insects have unbalanced diets, poor in essential nutrients that are supplemented by their endosymbionts. Attending to their dispensability for host survival, we distinguish between primary (P) or obligate, and secondary (S) or facultative endosymbionts. P-endosymbionts are essential for host fitness and reproduction, and maternally transmitted through generations, while S-symbionts are not essential and can experience horizontal transfer. The genomes of P-endosymbionts usually exhibit an increase in their A + T content and undergo great size reduction, among other changes.