Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Background: Multiple cysteine proteases of malaria parasites are required for maintenance of parasite metabolic homeostasis and egress from the host erythrocyte. In Plasmodium falciparum these proteases appear to mediate the processing of hemoglobin and aspartic proteases (plasmepsins) in the acidic food vacuole click here and the hydrolysis of erythrocyte
structural proteins at neutral pH. Two cysteine proteases, vivapain (VX)-2 and VX-3 have been characterized in P. vivax, but comprehensive studies of P. vivax cysteine proteases remain elusive.\n\nFindings: We characterized a novel cysteine protease of P. vivax, VX-4, of which orthologs appears to have evolved differentially in primate plasmodia with strong cladistic affinity toward those of rodent Plasmodium. Recombinant VX-4 demonstrated dual substrate specificity depending on the surrounding micro-environmental pH. Its hydrolyzing activity against benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Arg-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide
learn more (Z-Leu-Arg-MCA) and Z-Phe-Arg-MCA was highest at acidic pH (5.5), whereas that against Z-Arg-Arg-MCA was maximal at neutral pH (6.5-7.5). VX-4 preferred positively charged amino acids and Gln at the P1 position, with less strict specificity at P3 and P4. P2 preferences depended on pH (Leu at pH 5.5 and Arg at pH 7.5). Three amino acids that delineate the S2 pocket were substituted in VX-4 compared to VX-2 and VX-3 (Ala90, Gly157 and Glu180). Replacement of Glu180 abolished activity against Z-Arg-Arg-MCA at neutral pH, indicating SRT1720 supplier the importance of this amino acid in the pH-dependent substrate preference. VX-4 was localized in the food vacuoles and cytoplasm of the erythrocytic stage of P. vivax.
VX-4 showed maximal activity against actin at neutral pH, and that against P. vivax plasmepsin 4 and hemoglobin was detected at neutral/acidic and acidic pH, respectively.\n\nConclusion: VX-4 demonstrates pH-dependent substrate switching, which might offer an efficient mechanism for the specific cleavage of different substrates in different intracellular environments. VX-4 might function as a hemoglobinase in the acidic parasite food vacuole, a maturase of P. vivax plasmepsin 4 at neutral or acidic pH, and a cytoskeleton-degrading protease in the neutral erythrocyte cytosol.”
“Sharks are among the most threatened groups of marine species. Populations are declining globally to support the growing demand for shark fin soup. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate toxins that may pose health risks to consumers of shark products. The feeding habits of sharks are varied, including fish, mammals, crustaceans and plankton. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been detected in species of free-living marine cyanobacteria and may bioaccumulate in the marine food web.
Notably, it is also the first time that biflavonoids have ever been found in the Capparidaceae. Concentrations of the two biflavonoids were measured in caper fruits collected from four major growing areas in northwest China. The anti-inflammatory
effects of the flavonoids AS1842856 ic50 from caper fruits were evaluated by secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter assay, which was designed to measure nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation. Isoginkgetin and ginkgetin showed inhibitory effects in initial screen at 20 mu M, while the effect of ginkgetin was much greater than that of isoginkgetin. In a dose-response experiment, the IC(50) value of ginkgetin was estimated at 7.5 mu M, suggesting it could be a strong NF-kappa B inhibitor and worthy of study in vivo.”
“In an electromagnetic field, the morphology of a binary faceted-faceted (FF) Ni31Si12-Ni2Si eutectic microstructure and the alloy’s mechanical properties were investigated. Hardness experiments demonstrated that the solidified ingots were significantly strengthened, and the hardness was improved to 63.1 and 786.6 on the Rockwell hardness C and Vickers hardness scales, respectively. Tests of friction and wear in stirred FF eutectic alloys showed excellent anti-fatigue and anti-adhesion wear performance. Alloy changed from an anomalous
microstructure to a refined quasi-regular structure, and there was an increase in the lamellar microstructure fraction. Selleckchem MLN2238 The formation process of the refined quasi-regular microstructure and the resulting mechanical properties were investigated.”
“Development of evidence-based practice requires investigation of the attitudes and needs of patients, families and healthcare BEZ235 purchase professionals, particularly for sensitive subject areas. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessively inherited life-limiting disorder resulting in early death. Patients with this
condition generally expect that lung transplantation will be an available treatment option; however, this is uncertain. A dual approach to care that involves both preparing patients for transplant assessment, while simultaneously exploring acceptable palliative care options is needed. A survey amongst patients with CF, their families and health carers was conducted to understand their attitudes and needs in relation to end-of-life care. The survey encompassed five separate domains, with a total of 60 questions requiring approximately 20 min to complete. Of the 200 surveys sent to patients, 82 (41%) completed responses were received. The Institutional Ethics Committee received six complaints from families of seven patients (3.5% of those surveyed). This article explores the nature of the adverse responses to the survey. The majority of complaints were received from family members rather than from patients. Complaints described dissatisfaction with the topic, little warning about the study and felt it to be inappropriate for their family member’s level of health.
If they gain widespread use in clinical practice, they may also help to give reliable comparisons
of morbidity rates among different partial nephrectomy techniques, individual surgeons, and institutions.”
“Perovskite-type Ca1-2xDyxYbxMnO3 (0 smaller than = x smaller than = 0.10) ceramics were synthesized by solid state reaction. selleck products Microstructures were characterized and thermoelectric properties were evaluated between 300 K and 1100 K. The samples obtained in this work have high relative densities with compact grains. The electrical resistivity shows a typical metallic conductivity behavior, and decreases with substitution. The Seebeck coefficients are negative, indicating n-type conduction, and the largest value is obtained -181 mu V/K at x=0.02. The highest power factor 415 mu W/(K(2)m) and the highest figure of merit 0.27 are both obtained for x=0.02 sample, and the ZT is about five times as much as un-doped CaMnO3 sample. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Airway management is essential in critically Panobinostat cost ill or injured patients. In a “can’t intubate, can’t oxygenate” scenario, an emergency surgical airway (ESA), similar to a cricothyroidotomy, is the final step in airway management.
This procedure is infrequently performed in the prehospital or clinical setting. The incidence of ESA may differ between physician- and non-physician-staffed emergency medical services (EMS). We examined the indications and results of ESA procedures among our physician-staffed EMS compared with non-physician-staffed services. Methods: Data for all forms of airway management were obtained from our EMS providers and analyzed and compared
with data from non-physician-staffed EMS found in the literature. Results: Among 1871 patients requiring a secured airway, the incidence of a surgical airway was 1.6% (n = 30). Fourteen patients received a primary ESA. In 16 patients, a secondary ESA was required after failed endotracheal selleck screening library intubation. The total prehospital ESA tracheal access success rate was 96.7%. Conclusion: The incidence of ESA in our patient population was low compared with those reported in the literature from non-physician-staffed EMS. Advanced intubation skills might be a contributing factor, thus reducing the number of ESAs required. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes that causes the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. However, sometimes, discrimination between dysplastic nevi and early melanomas is difficult, even for experienced pathologists. Besides histology, the silencing of tumor suppressor genes aids in the diagnosis of melanoma. We have shown previously that tumor suppressor in lung cancer 1 (TSLC1) is a tumor suppressor gene, and its silencing through aberrant promoter methylation is associated with the generation of cutaneous melanoma.
Further, the implications on the computation of the peeling behavior of gecko spatulae are discussed. It is observed that the spatula geometry lies in the range where the peeling work attains a maximum.”
“Red colored bright visible
light fracto-mechanoluminescence was observed successfully from ruby (Cr doped Al2O3) and Cr doped spinel (Cr doped MgAl2O4) crystals in mechanical processes such as cutting, grinding and polishing. Fracto-mechanoluminescence spectra from ruby (peaking at lambda=696 nm) and Cr doped spinel (peaking at lambda=693 nm) perfectly agree selleck chemicals with those of photoluminescence (PL) from Cr3+ ions in ruby and spinal crystals, respectively. In the grinding and polishing processes, peak intensities and peak wavelength of fract-mechanoluminescence from ruby and Cr doped spinel crystals varies with roughness (grain size, #)
of the diamond disk. Fracto-mechanoluminescence is expected to be used in the in-situ evaluation of fracture of crystals in cutting, grinding and polishing for highly precise mechanical processes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been highlighted as a likely first step in the ‘atopic march’, emphasizing the need to define predisposing factors. Methods: We evaluated AD risk factors and phenotypes in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. We defined three phenotypes of doctor-diagnosed AD based on the time of onset of the disease: early AD occurring within the first 6 months of life, AD occurring between 6 and 12 months and late-onset AD starting after the age of 12 months. Results: Maternal check details allergic history was associated with an increased risk of developing early-onset AD (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 20.46, 95% confidence interval (CI)
2.73-153.15, p smaller than 0.01). Maternal allergic history and attendance at a daycare centre increased the odds of the development of AD between 6 and 12 months (aOR 4.19, 95% CI 1.01-17.45, p = 0.049 and aOR 11.42, 95% CI 1.49-87.50, p = 0.02, respectively). Risk factors associated with increased odds of late-onset AD from 12 months were the consumption of probiotics between the age of 9 and 12 months and antibiotic treatment in the first 6 months of life (aOR 4.32, 95% CI 1.07-17.45, p = 0.04 and aOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.10-8.76, p = 0.03, respectively). Cell Cycle inhibitor Early-onset AD was associated with an increased risk of developing allergic sensitization (aOR 46.51, 95% CI 3.44-628.81, p smaller than 0.01). Conclusion: We found that early-onset AD was mainly associated with familial factors, while late-onset AD was associated with the consumption of antibiotics or probiotics. The findings support the concept that different phenotypes of AD exist in young children. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Intensification of glycemic control is associated with weight gain, however, less is known about weight change during the maintenance phase of glycemic management.
Species distributions and diversity in East Asia are discussed.”
“Phenotypic variability in the presence of an identical molecular defect is a recurrent feature in heritable disorders and it was also reported in osteogenesis imperfecta (01). OI is a prototype for skeletal dysplasias mainly caused by mutations in the two genes coding for type I collagen. No definitive cure is available for this disorder, but the understanding of molecular basis in 01 phenotypic modulation will have a pivotal role in identifying
possible targets to develop novel drug therapy.\n\nWe used a functional proteomic approach to address the study of phenotypic variability using the skin of the 01 murine model Brtl. Brtl mice reproduce the molecular defect, dominant transmission and phenotypic variability of human OI patients. In the https://www.selleckchem.com/products/ly2606368.html presence of a Gly349Cys substitution in alpha 1(I)-collagen Brtl mice can have a lethal or a moderately severe outcome.\n\nDifferential expression of chaperones,
proteasomal subunits, metabolic enzymes, and proteins related to cellular fate LY3023414 demonstrated that a different ability to adapt to cellular stress distinguished mutant from wild-type mice and mutant lethal from surviving mutant animals. Interestingly, class discovery analysis identified clusters of differentially expressed proteins associated with a specific outcome, and functional analysis contributed to a deeper investigation into biochemical and cellular pathways affected by the disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Proteomics. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Illicit substances increase risk of
morbidity and mortality and have significant consequences for society. Personality traits are associated with drug use; we test whether these associations vary by socioeconomic status.\n\nMethod: Participants (N = 412) from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and self-reported use of opiates and cocaine. 50% of participants were living below 125% of the federal poverty line. Mean-level personality differences across never, former, and current opiate/cocaine users were compared. Logistic regressions compared never versus current users and interactions Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor between personality traits and poverty status tested whether these associations varied by socioeconomic status.\n\nResults: High Neuroticism and low Agreeableness increased risk of drug use. The association between low Conscientiousness and drug use was moderated by poverty, such that low Conscientiousness was a stronger risk factor for illicit substance use among those with relatively higher SES. For every standard deviation decrease in Conscientiousness, there was a greater than 2-fold increase in risk of illicit substance use (OR=2.15,95% CI = 1.45-3.17).
“The structure of the temporalis muscle was examined in detail from cadaveric specimens (32 specimens from 16 subjects: 5 males, average age 80.6 years; 11 females, average age 88.6 years) and Computerized Tomography (CT) and T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance (MR) images from normal clinical patients (10 females: average age 45.0 years). Three parts of the muscle were clearly delineated in all cadaveric specimens: (1) the classically recognized superficial part, (2) a zygomatic part, and (3) a complex deep part. In one female
specimen, the superficial selleck inhibitor temporalis demonstrated extensive insertions into the zygomatic process and temporomandibular joint. The zygomatic temporalis originates from the zygomatic arch to insert into the superficial part of the temporalis as it inserts into the lateral surface of the coronoid process. In all specimens, the deep temporalis contained muscle bundles that originated from various crests
along the anterior surface of the temporal fossa and inserted into the internal aspect of the coronoid process and retromolar triangle, inter-digitating with the buccinator, mylohyoid, and superior constrictor muscles. The confluence of muscle fibers into the buccinator muscle was confirmed in all CT/MRI images. The deep and zygomatic parts described were regarded as accessory muscle bellies previously, but are demonstrably part of the temporalis muscle as a whole. Clin. Anat. 22:655-664, 2009. (C) click here 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“We report a case of alien hand sign in a male with stroke and briefly discuss
the pathogenesis of this rare condition symptom.”
“PurposeThis Alvocidib article investigates the safety of radiofrequency induced local thermal hotspots within a 1.5T body coil by assessing the transient local peak temperatures as a function of exposure level and local thermoregulation in four anatomical human models in different Z-positions. MethodsTo quantize the effective thermal stress of the tissues, the thermal dose model cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C was employed, allowing the prediction of thermal tissue damage risk and the identification of potentially hazardous MR scan-scenarios. The numerical results were validated by B-1(+)- and skin temperature measurements. ResultsAt continuous 4 W/kg whole-body exposure, peak tissue temperatures of up to 42.8 degrees C were computed for the thermoregulated model (60 degrees C in nonregulated case). When applying cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 degrees C damage thresholds of 15 min (muscle, skin, fat, and bone) and 2 min (other), possible tissue damage cannot be excluded after 25 min for the thermoregulated model (4 min in nonregulated). ConclusionThe results are found to be consistent with the history of safe use in MR scanning, but not with current safety guidelines. For future safety concepts, we suggest to use thermal dose models instead of temperatures or SAR. Special safety concerns for patients with impaired thermoregulation (e.g.
We also find that all but one of the chondrule data sets tested are consistent with being drawn from the TC distribution.”
“Breast cancer and prostate cancer are the most common cancers diagnosed in women and men, respectively, in the UK, and radiotherapy is used extensively in the treatment of both. In vitro data suggest that tumours in the breast and prostate have unique properties that make a hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment schedule advantageous
in terms of therapeutic index. Many clinical trials of hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment schedules have been completed to establish the extent to which hypofractionation can improve patient outcome. Here we present a concise description selleck chemicals of hypofractionation, the mathematical description of converting between conventional and hypofractionated schedules, and the motivation for using SB203580 ic50 hypofractionation
in the treatment of breast and prostate cancer. Furthermore, we summarise the results of important recent hypofractionation trials and highlight the limitations of a hypofractionated treatment regimen. (C) 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Lactose has been hydrolyzed using covalently immobilized beta-galactosidase on thermally stable carrageenan coated with chitosan (hydrogel). The hydrogel’s mode of interaction was proven by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Schiff’s base formation. The DSC thermogram
proved the formation of a strong polyelectrolyte complex between carrageenan and chitosan followed by glutaraldehyde as they formed one single peak. The modification of carrageenan improved the gel’s thermal stability in solutions from 35 degrees C to 95 degrees C. The hydrogel has been PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 datasheet proven to be efficient for beta-galactosidase immobilization where 11 U/g wet gel was immobilized with 50% enzyme loading capacity. Activity and stability of free and immobilized beta-galactosidase towards pH and temperature showed marked shifts in their optimum pH from 4.5-5 to 5-5.5 and temperature from 50 degrees C to 45-55 degrees C after immobilization, which reveals higher catalytic activity and reasonable stability at wider pHs and temperatures. The apparent K(m) of the immobilized enzyme increased from 13.2 to 125 mM, whereas the V(max) increased from 3.2 to 6.6 mu mol/min compared to the free enzyme, respectively. The free and immobilized enzymes showed lactose conversion of 87% and 70% at 7 h, respectively. The operational stability showed 97% retention of the enzyme activity after 15 uses, which demonstrates that the covalently immobilized enzyme is unlikely to leach. The new carrier could be suitable for immobilization of other industrial enzymes.”
“In melanoma, at least four major signaling abnormalities have been described.
Eleven isolates were identified as non-Listeria spp., the remaining ten L. monocytogenes isolates were nontypeable. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed the antibiotic that isolates displayed the most resistance
to was gentamicin (5%) followed by sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (2%), tetracycline and ciprofloxacin (1 center dot 5%).\n\nConclusions:\n\nThe subtyping has indicated the diversity of the Listeria spp. The presence of serotype 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b in both raw and cooked ready-to-eat food products is a public health concern, AZD1208 supplier as these serotypes are frequently associated with foodborne outbreaks and sporadic cases of human listeriosis. In addition, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant L. monocytogenes isolates could have serious therapeutic consequences.\n\nSignificance and Impact of Study:\n\nThe molecular subtyping and the further characterization of these isolates may be valuable particularly in the context of a suspected common source outbreak in the future.”
“Introduction. – Konzo is a neuromyelopathy characterized by permanent spastic paraparesis, linked to a subacute poisoning by cyanide GSK2126458 datasheet found in cassava. The purpose of the study is to describe the epidemiological aspects of konzo in health region No. 2 in
the Central African Republic.\n\nMethod. – A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among patients collected during a one-month period (July 16 to August 16, 2007) of active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis.\n\nResults. – Eighty-one cases of konzo were identified during the study period, representing a prevalence of 10 per 100,000. Mean age of patients was 10.7 +/- 7.7 years. Children and women were most affected. The
main warning signs were fatigability (97.6%), tremor (88.9%), walking difficulty (100.0%), dysarthria (67.9%) and a loss of visual acuity (65.4%). The predominant neurological signs were lower limb paresis (90.0%) and hyperesthesia (66.7%).\n\nConclusion. – Konzo is a serious public health problem in this region of the Central African Republic. A prevention program should be set-up. (C) 2008 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“In conformational diseases, native protein conformers convert GW786034 mw to pathological intermediates that polymerize. Structural characterization of these key intermediates is challenging. They are unstable and minimally populated in dynamic equilibria that may be perturbed by many analytical techniques. We have characterized a forme fruste deficiency variant of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (Lys154Asn) that forms polymers recapitulating the conformer-specific neo-epitope observed in polymers that form in vivo. Lys154Asn alpha(1)-antitrypsin populates an intermediate ensemble along the polymerization pathway at physiological temperatures.
“The compressive strength of heavyweight concrete which is produced
using baryte aggregates has been predicted by artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic (FL) models. For these models 45 experimental results were used and trained. Cement rate, water rate, periods (7-28-90 days) and baryte (BaSO(4)) rate (%) were used as inputs and compressive strength (MPa) was used as output while developing both ANN and FL models. In the models, training and testing results have shown that ANN and FL systems have strong potential for predicting compressive strength of concretes containing baryte (BaSO(4)).”
“Skin sensitization is an important aspect of safety assessment. The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) developed in the 1990s is an in vivo test used for skin ‘sensitization
hazard identification and characterization. More recently a reduced version of the LLNA (rLLNA) P505-15 price has been developed as a means of identifying, but not quantifying, sensitization hazard. The work presented here is aimed at enabling rLLNA data to be used to give quantitative potency information that can be used, inter alia, in modeling and read-across approaches to non-animal SHP099 smiles based potency estimation. A probit function has been derived enabling estimation of EC3 from a single dose. This has led to development of a modified version of the rLLNA, whereby as a general principle the SI value at 10%, or at a lower concentration if 10% is not testable, is used to calculate the EC3. This version of the rLLNA has been evaluated against a selection of chemicals for which full WZB117 order LLNA data are available, and has been shown to give EC3 values in good agreement with those derived from the full LLNA. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Very few studies have investigated dose response of aspirin and agreement of different platelet function assays in children. One hundred five children were studied at baseline and after interventional cardiac catheterization during aspirin treatment and, in cases of aspirin resistance (AR), after dose increase. Results from arachidonate-induced aggregation (AA) were compared with aggregation induced
by ADP, PFA-100 closure times (CTs), urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (urinary 11-dhTxB2) levels, and Impact-R % surface coverage. Aspirin at 2-5 mg/kg/day inhibited platelet function in a large majority. While 19 % showed bruising and mild epistaxis, no thrombotic complications were recorded. AR was detected by AA in seven children (6.7 %). After dose increase, the majority showed inhibition by aspirin. Infants had higher urinary 11-dhTxB2 baseline levels; this assay showed some correlation with AA. Both assays manifested high sensitivity and specificity for aspirin while inferior results were found for the other assays. With the PFA-100, 15.2 % of patients were found to have AR, but this corresponded to AR by AA in only one of seven children.
g., promoting cell migration and proliferation, but inhibiting cell adhesion). This study investigated the inhibitory effects of ILK gene knockdown on the regulation of click here in vivo tumorigenesis of human ovarian carcinoma cells in nude mouse xenografts. HO-8910 cells were transfected with an ILK antisense
oligonucleotide (ILK-AS 0) to silence the ILK gene. Expression of ILK mRNA and protein was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Cells with or without ILK-ASO transfection were subcutaneously injected into nude mice. The mouse body weight, tumor formation, tumor size and tumor weight were determined up to 30 days after inoculation. Tumor cells transfected with ILK-ASO had significantly decreased ILK mRNA and protein expression (P<0.01) when compared to the control cells. ILK gene silencing significantly increased the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase (67.61 vs. 43.29%, chi(2)=1197.15, P<0.01). After tumor cell inoculation, tumor cells transfected with ILK-ASO showed significantly delayed tumor formation when SRT2104 purchase compared to control (9.10 +/- 0.74 vs.
5.30 +/- 0.67 days, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, tumor growth was suppressed in the 30 days following inoculation (P<0.01 compared with the controls). The average tumor weight in the ILK-ASO group was statistically lower than that of the control group (1.29 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.57 +/- 0.13 g, respectively; P<0.01). This study demonstrated that ILK-ASO transfection efficiently downregulated ILK expression in human ovarian carcinoma PRT062607 order HO-8910 cells and that ILK gene silencing suppressed tumor growth in nude mice xenografts.”
“Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a recently characterized chronic, allergic, gastrointestinal disorder. Using the
Pediatric Health Information System, we report trends in diagnostic codes related to EoE in inpatients from 1999 through 2010. Esophagitis not elsewhere classifiable, EoE, and dysphagia have increased over time. Similar to other allergic disorders, EoE appears to be increasing across the United States.”
“Kinetics of the solid-solid II-I phase transition of isotactic polybutene-1 was investigated. The fraction 1411 of phase I as a function of time t(tr) during the phase transition was measured by X-ray diffraction at various temperatures T(tr), The Avrami indices n of the W(I)-t(tr) plots are approximately unity for T(tr) > 288 K. A bell-shaped temperature dependence of the transition rate V with the maximum transition rate at 285 K was obtained. The V-T(tr) curve and the Avrami index n = 1 suggest that the rate-determining process is primary nucleation. The dependence of V on T(tr) for T(tr) < 283 K is described by the William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation, which shows that the glass transition affects the transition rate.