3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons; 1998. Authors’ contributions JF carried out the transcriptional profiling studies and helped to draft the manuscript. LR made measurements of biofilm antibiotic susceptibility and protein synthetic activity. BP assisted with microscopy. FR performed the oxygen microelectrode Proteasome inhibitor measurements. GE participated in the design of the study and formulation of hypotheses. AP performed the statistical analyses. AM performed the bioinformatic analysis that generated Figure 4. PS conceived the
experimental and analytical approaches, supervised laboratory work and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Most microbes in natural www.selleckchem.com/JNK.html ecosystems exist in highly organized and functional interactive communities, which are composed of cells attached to surfaces and/or to each other either from a single species or multiple species [1–7]. Microbial communities confer a number of advantages for survival, such as nutrient availability with metabolic cooperation, acquisition of new genetic traits, and protection from the environment [4, 8]. The most common microbial communities are biofilms, which refer to assemblages of cell on solid biotic or abiotic surfaces. In recent years, the subject of microbial biofilms has drawn a lot of attention and numerous studies have provided important insights into the genetic basis of biofilm development [5, 7]. Pellicles, arising
from the interface between air and liquid and therefore frequently called air-liquid (A-L) OSI-906 concentration biofilms , have been well studied in an array of bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus [7, 10–12]. Pellicle formation consists of at least three distinctive
steps: (i) initial attachment of bacteria to the solid surface (wall of culture Fludarabine molecular weight device) at the interface between air and liquid, (ii) development of the monolayer pellicle initiated from the attached cells, and (iii) maturation of pellicles with characteristic three-dimensional architecture [1, 11]. In addition to cells, a variety of components, mainly extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), are needed for developing and maintaining the pellicle matrix. The most extensively studied EPS include exopolysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA although contributions of these agents to the integrity of the pellicle matrix may vary . While the pellicle is generally taken into account as a special form of biofilms [5, 7, 13], its distinguishing characteristics justify that this type of biofilm may serve as an independent research model [12–14]. Many factors, including extracellular organelles such as flagella and type IV pili, secreted proteins, and chemical agents supplemented in media such as iron and phosphate, have been shown to play important roles in biofilm formation . However, effects of these factors on the biofilm formation process depend on the bacterium under study.