4. Full haplotype-length sequencing has been performed for KIR haplotypes, showing the order of the genes on each haplotype to be KIR3DL3 at the centromeric end, KIR3DL2 at the telomeric end and KIR2DL4 in the middle.8,9,29 Wnt tumor The A haplotype is generally non-variable in its gene organization, using
up to eight genes: those of the framework and KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, KIR2DS4 and KIR3DL1. Indeed, one genotype consisting of two identical A haplotypes with all eight genes, is present in all 95 populations with available genotyping data, a total of 3019 (30·1%) individuals (Fig. 5). Occasionally AA genotypes have one of the genes normally present on an A haplotype missing. The B haplotype is defined by the presence of one or more of the genes encoding activating KIRs, KIR2DS1/2/3/5, KIR3DS1 and the genes encoding inhibitory KIRs, KIR2DL5A/B and KIR2DL2. Hence, variability on the B haplotype is created mainly by the presence or absence of the genes and, to a lesser extent, by alleles whereas in the A haplotype it is very exceptional to have variability in gene content but there is
much more allele variability. Corresponding to this is the fact that it is the Quizartinib order inhibitory genes that, in the main, have more alleles than the activating genes. Of the 335 alleles reported to date, 243 are from the inhibitory genes, whereas 79 are from the activating genes.15,30 The remaining 13 alleles are contributed by the pseudogenes KIR2DP1 and KIR3DP1. It is not known if the B haplotype, with its many gene arrangements, does not require allele polymorphism or if natural selection has acted against variability at the allele level of these genes because of possible autoimmune destruction.
It has been suggested that the activating KIR genes evolved from inhibitory KIR genes and are short-lived in comparison with the genes encoding the inhibitory KIR and so there may not have been enough time for polymorphism to develop.31 KIR3DP1 and KIR2DL4 divide the centromeric from the telomeric parts of the haplotype. Within each of these two regions there is extensive linkage disequilibrium (see also section on KIR alleles). Etomidate For example a recent report has shown that in 27 global populations the average linkage disequilibrium is nearly complete (Cramer’s V statistic = 0·99) between centromeric B haplotype loci KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 and very strong (Cramer’s V statistic = 0·92) between the telomeric genes KIR3DS1 and KIR2DS1. However, much less linkage disequilibrium is found between centromeric and telomeric parts; for example Cramer’s V statistic = 0·1 for KIR2DL2 and KIR3DS1 (J. A. Hollenbach, A. Meenagh, C. Sleator et al., submitted). In a previous report on 77 families in Northern Ireland (plus an additional 27 families added more recently) we examined KIR genes and alleles, making it possible to ascertain if an individual had one or two copies of the gene, although it was necessary to make some assumptions.