44 mequivg(-1)) and conductivity while maintaining excellent mech

44 mequivg(-1)) and conductivity while maintaining excellent mechanical stability and thermal stability. These membranes can be considered as excellent Selisistat chemical structure candidates suitable for water desalination by electrodialysis. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

“Salmonella enterica is an important pathogen that causes a variety of infectious diseases in animals and humans. Live attenuated vaccines generally confer better protection than killed or subunit vaccines; however, the former are limited by their inherent toxicity. We evaluated the potential of a novel candidate Salmonella vaccine strain that lacks the ruvB gene. The ruvB gene encodes a Holliday junction helicase that is required to resolve junctions that arise during the repair of non-arresting lesions after DNA replication. The deletion of this gene in Salmonella significantly impaired cell survival and proliferation within epithelial cells and macrophages. The defective virulence in ruvB mutant may be partially due to decreased expression of ssaG, a Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 gene, CYT387 and increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide in the lack of ruvB gene.

The virulence of the ruvB-deleted mutant was also greatly attenuated in BALB/c mice. The ruvB mutant conferred strong and durable immune-based protection against a challenge with a lethal dose of a virulent strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, protective immunity was induced by a single dose of the vaccine, and the efficacy of protection was maintained for at least 6 months. These results suggest the use of the S. Typhimurium ruvB mutant as a novel vaccine. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background In patients with Bismuth type I and II hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA), bile duct resection alone has been the conventional approach. However, many authors have reported that concomitant liver resection improved MI-503 datasheet surgical outcomes.\n\nMethods

Between January 2000 and January 2012, 52 patients underwent surgical resection for a Bismuth type I and II HCCA (type I: n = 22; type II: n = 30). Patients were classified into two groups: concomitant liver resection (n = 26) and bile duct resection alone (n = 26).\n\nResults Bile duct resection alone was performed in 26 patients. Concomitant liver resection was performed in 26 patients (right side hepatectomy [n = 13]; left-side hepatectomy [n = 6]; volume-preserving liver resection [n = 7]). All liver resections included a caudate lobectomy. Patient and tumor characteristics did not differ between the two groups. Although concomitant liver resection required longer operating time (P < 0.001), it had a similar postoperative complication rate (P = 0.764), high curability (P = 0.010), and low local recurrence rate (P = 0.006). Concomitant liver resection showed better overall survival (P = 0.047).\n\nConclusions Concomitant liver resection should be considered in patients with Bismuth type I and II HCCA.

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