5° (with respect to the surface normal). According to the TRIDYN simulation  (as shown in Figure 2), although the sputtering yield maxima is close to 70°, for the sake of completion, we also performed measurements at 72.5° which is not far off from the sputtering yield maxima, and at this higher angle, the shadowing effect is expected to be more prominent. Figure 2 TRIDYN simulation result. Showing the variation of sputtering yield Verteporfin of silicon with ion incidence angle (for 500 eV argon ions). Following Ar ion exposure, the samples were imaged by ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon probes were used having a diameter of approximately 10 nm. Root mean square (rms) surface roughness,
w, and two-dimensional
(2D) autocorrelation function were calculated for all AFM images using the WSxM software https://www.selleckchem.com/products/BIBF1120.html . Wavelength of ripple patterns was calculated from the respective autocorrelation functions. As far as faceted structures are concerned, instead of wavelength, we considered the average base width value which was calculated from a large number of line profiles drawn on the respective AFM images. In addition, Rutherford backscattering spectrometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements were performed on Ar ion-bombarded Si samples which did not show the presence of any impurity above their respective detection limits. Results and discussion Figure 3a,b,c,d,e,f,g presents AFM topographic images obtained from silicon samples before and after exposure to argon ion incidence angle 70° at different fluences. Figure 3a presents the AFM image of
the pristine sample which shows a smooth surface (rms surface roughness = 0.09 nm). Figure 3b,c shows the signature of corrugated surfaces formed at low fluences, namely 1 × 1017 and 2 × 1017 ions cm-2, respectively. However, small mound-like entities also start appearing on the corrugated surface at the latter fluence. Figure 3d,e,f,g C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) depicts AFM images where mound formation becomes predominant (at the fluence of 5 × 1017 ions cm-2) which transforms into faceted structures MLN8237 price corresponding to the fluence of 10 × 1017 ions cm-2 and grows further at even higher fluences. Figure 3 AFM topographic images obtained from silicon samples. (a) Pristine silicon and those exposed to 500 eV argon ions at an incidence angle of 70° to various fluences: (b) 1 × 1017, (c) 2 × 1017, (d) 5 × 1017, (e) 10 × 1017, (f) 15 × 1017, and (g) 20 × 1017 ions cm-2, respectively. The corresponding height scales for (a to g) are the following: 1, 4.3, 9.9, 39.5, 85.7, 60.9, and 182.2 nm. For clarity, (a to c) represent images acquired over a scan area of 1 × 1 μm2, whereas (d to g) are of scan area 2 × 2 μm2. Insets show the 2D autocorrelation functions for corresponding images. Figure 4a,b,c,d,e,f shows AFM topographic images corresponding to incidence angle of 72.