5b), clearly indicating that the structure is not rigid at all F

5b), clearly indicating that the structure is not rigid at all. Fig. 5 Analysis of the C2S2M2 supercomplex of photosystem II. a A projection map at about 13 Å shows the exact positions of S-trimers and M-trimer of the LHCII; the triangles indicate the position of the threefold symmetry axis in the center of the trimer. b A projection map, focused on improving the centre of the supercomplex plus the S-trimer region. In this map, these areas have been slightly sharpened, but at the cost of the M-trimer. Note:

no symmetry was imposed during or after the analysis. Space bar equals 100 Å Examples of single particle EM: analysis without purification steps Isolated photosynthetic membranes can be solubilized and the complete set of proteins can be used for EM. After single particle analysis, PF-6463922 concentration all the (larger) membrane protein projections can be sorted and averaged, as for example with solubilized cyanobacterial membranes (Fig. 6). Some of the obtained projections can be easily assigned, www.selleckchem.com/products/gs-9973.html Because structures have been solved. Well-known protein complexes such as trimeric photosystem I (PSI) (Fig. 6j), dimeric photosystem II (Fig. 6d), and the ATP synthase (Fig. 6k) are recognizable from their shape and size. There are, however, also complexes of unknown composition such as a novel “rod-like” particle (Fig. 6f)

that could have to do with phycobilisomes. The averaged projections of the frames Fig. 6a, b can be assigned to side- and top-views of the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex (abbreviated NDH-1 complex). Interestingly, the side-view selleck screening library map of Fig. 6a reveals an U-shaped particle, which has an extra density on its hydrophobic arm, as compared with the classical L-shaped particle obtained by purification (Fig. 6c, Arteni et al. 2006). Apparently, the standard purification procedure of NDH-1, which includes dodecyl maltoside as detergent for solubilization, results in the loss of specific subunits. This observation triggered many the assignment of this extra density. Because a purification of the U-shaped NDH-1 complex was expected to be difficult,

a strategy was used to repeat the solubilization and single particle analysis from mutants lacking specific components, expected to be part of NDH-1. From the analysis of the NDH-1 particles from a mutant lacking CupA and a double mutant lacking Cup A/B, it was proven that the unknown density was CupA, because only L-shaped particles were observed in the mutants (Folea et al. 2008). Fig. 6 Exploring transient membrane complexes by applying single particle EM without purification steps. A gallery of 2D projection maps of solubilized membrane complexes from the cyanobacteria Thermosynechoccus elongatus and Synechocystis PCC 6803. a NDH-1 side view from T. elongatus b NDH-1 top view from T. elongatus. c Purified NDH-1 from Synechocystis (reproduced from Arteni et al. 2006). d Photosystem II dimeric complex from Synechocystis.

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