After 2 hrs exposure to nitrogen starvation, there was a profound

After 2 hrs exposure to nitrogen starvation, there was a profound increase in glnA1 transcription (67 ± 38, Table 3) which may reflect a heightened state of intracellular nitrogen starvation and thus the requirement for increased levels selleck screening library of GS enzyme in order to efficiently assimilate

ammonium under these conditions. The relatively constant increase in GS activity under the same conditions (Table 2) was most likely due a combination of an increase in glnA1 transcription and very strict control of GS activity by the adenylyltransferase, GlnE, in order to balance ammonium assimilation; energy expenditure and the intracellular glutamate/glutamine ratios. When an ammonium pulse was applied to M. smegmatis that had been starved of nitrogen, a down-regulation in transcription was observed, however,

it was not found to be statistically significant (data not shown). There was, however, a rapid and significant decrease in GS specific activity when the bacteria were exposed to an ammonium pulse (Table 2) which suggests that post-translational modification via GlnE is responsible for the swift response in GS activity to changing ammonium Captisol ic50 concentrations. Table 3 Relative quantificationa of the expression of GS (glnA1), NADP-GDH (msmeg_5442) and L_180 NAD-GDH (msmeg_4699) when M. smegmatis was exposed to prolonged periods of nitrogen limitation. Time (hours) Gene     glnA1 P-value MSMEG_4699 P-value MSMEG_5442 P-value 0.5 2 ± 0.5 0.001 0.5 ± 0.1 0.001 0.5 ± 0.1 0.001 1 3 ± 0.6 0.001 0.6 ± 0.05 0.001 0.5 ± 0.08 0.001 2 67 ± 38 0.001 13 ± 4 0.001 TPCA-1 datasheet Interleukin-3 receptor 2 ± 0.9 0.901 4 58 ± 43 0.001 18 ± 15 0.001 3 ± 3 0.272 a The relative change in gene expression when M. smegmatis was exposed to nitrogen starvation was compared to gene expression after M. smegmatis exposed to 60 mM (NH4)2SO4 for 1 hours (time point zero). SigA was used as the internal reference gene. Values >1 reflect an up-regulation of gene expression whereas values <1 represent a down-regulation of expression in relation to the non-regulated internal reference,

sigA. * statistically significant gene regulation (p < 0.05) Within the first hour of nitrogen limitation, the transcription of both msmeg_5442 and msmeg_4699 was statistically significantly down-regulated by a relative factor of 2.00 (calculated by 1/expression ratio). The expression of msmeg_5442 did not alter significantly thereafter (Table 3). The down-regulation of NADP+-GDH (msmeg_5442) observed in M. smegmatis is similar to the pattern of expression of the homologous gene (SCO4683) in a related Actinomycete, Streptomyces coelicolor, under analogous conditions [50]. The L_180 class of NAD+-GDH enzymes identified to date have been well characterised, however, the expression of the genes encoding these enzymes has not yet been investigated in any depth. Under our experimental conditions, the L_180 NAD+-GDH in M.

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