anthropogenic conditions on both delta plain and delta front and

anthropogenic conditions on both delta plain and delta front and the examine how similar changes may affect maintenance of deltas

in general and wave-dominated E7080 molecular weight deltas in particular. The Danube delta, built in the northwestern Black Sea over the last ∼9000 years (Giosan et al., 2009), comprises of two distinct morphological regions (Antipa, 1915). The internal “fluvial delta” was constructed inside the former Danube Bay, whereas the external “marine delta” developed into the Black Sea proper once this paleo-bay was filled (Fig. 1). The modern delta plain preserves surface morphological elements as old as ∼5500 years indicating that sea level did not vary much since then and that subsidence has been minimal when considered at the scale of the whole delta (Giosan et al., 2006a and Giosan et al., 2006b). The fluvial delta is an amalgamation of river-dominated bayhead and lacustrine lobes characterized by networks of successively branching channels and numerous lakes (Fig. 1). Wave-dominated lobes, characterized by beach ridge and barrier plains composed of alongshore-oriented sand ridges, are typical for the marine delta (Fig. 1). Although the youngest region of the marine delta, Chilia III, started as a

river-dominated lobe, it has come under wave-dominance in the first half of 20th century when sediment delivered by Verteporfin clinical trial Chilia branch became insufficient relative to its size (Giosan et al., 2005). Much of

the late development of the delta may be due to expansion of deforestation in the drainage basin in the last 1000 years (Giosan et al., 2012) leading to an overextended Danube delta. The high density of the fossil and active channel network (Fig. 1) suggests that after construction, the natural delta plain was fed by fluvial sediments through overbank flooding and avulsion in the fluvial sector, but primarily via minor overbank flooding in the marine sector. In the latter waves have tended to suppress avulsion and, thus, channel development (Bhattacharya and Giosan, 2003 and Swenson, 2005). The fluvial sediment delivery to the internal delta was probably relatively small compared to the sediment delivered to the coast triclocarban even with secondary channels present there. For example, Antipa (1915) described the internal delta after his comprehensive campaign of mapping it at the beginning of the last century as a “vast shallow lake” covered by floating reed islands and with marshes along its edges. Even today hundreds of lakes dot the fluvial delta (Giosan et al., 2005). Antipa’s “vast lake” was bounded by the high banks of the three large Danube distributaries (i.e., the Chilia, Sulina, and St. George from north to south) and the sand ridges of the marine delta, and internally segmented by the minor levees of some more prominent secondary channels.

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