9 +/- 7 2 years, mean diabetes duration 6 4 +/- 5 8 years Mean t

9 +/- 7.2 years, mean diabetes duration 6.4 +/- 5.8 years. Mean time of CSII use was 4.1 +/- 2.1 years. PFTα supplier Good glycaemic control was defined by glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) stratified by age (American Diabetes Association target levels). Improvement in glycaemic control was defined as a reduction of >= 0.5% in HbA(1c) from baseline. The change in the rate of severe hypoglycaemic or diabetic ketoacidosis events was also determined.\n\nResults\n\nThere was a significant sustained decrease in HbA(1c) with CSII for an average of 6 years, without increased rates of hypoglycaemia. Achievement of target HbA(1c) was significantly associated with the following parameters at pump initiation: lower HbA(1c)

(P < 0.001), younger age (< 12 years), shorter diabetes duration (P < 0.001) and more frequent daily self blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) (P < 0.01). Improved glycaemic control was associated with longer CSII use (P = 0.032) and higher HbA(1c) at CSII initiation (P < 0.001).\n\nConclusions\n\nSwitching patients to CSII resulted in sustained decrease in HbA(1c) and improved glycaemic control in patients with high HbA(1c). Young age, frequent SBGM and lower HbA(1c) at pump initiation were identified as predictors of achieving glycaemic targets with CSII.”
“During the last two decades, the outcome of various gene therapy BTSA1 concentration protocols lead to medical community disbelief.

Nevertheless, successful results obtained in recent years, repositioned gene therapy as a promising option for treatment of several diseases. Facing this renaissance of the international scientific community interest on gene therapy, it seems to be necessary for the generalist physician to understand its strength and limitations. The objective of this article is to comment the way gene therapy addresses nowadays the treatment of such different pathologies as neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases.”
“The PE/PPE family of proteins, which constitute 10% of the coding capacity

of the mycobacterial genome, comprises a unique set of genes which have no known homologs and have expanded throughout their evolution. Their association with virulence has been implicated by several researchers in tuberculosis, but the molecular basis of their virulence is yet to be completely explored. PE/PPEgenes are mostly associated with the pathogenic Sotrastaurin inhibitor strains of mycobacteria as many of them are known to be deleted in non-pathogenic ones. The non-essentiality of these genes for their in vitro growth but essentiality during infection highlights their active role in the host-pathogen interaction and consequently virulence. Even within the different strains of pathogenic mycobacteria and clinical isolates, many of the PE/PPE genes show sequence variation, pointing to their importance in providing antigenic variations, and have also been speculated to perform varied roles by differential expression during host-pathogen interaction.

29 +/- 4 97 vs 7 06 +/- 2 17 ng mu L(-1) in the low BMD group (P

29 +/- 4.97 vs. 7.06 +/- 2.17 ng mu L(-1) in the low BMD group (P = 0.012). C-telopeptide levels in the normal group were 1.06 +/- 1.4 vs. 0.74 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1) in the low BMD group (P = 0.169). Our results showed that low osteocalcin levels predominated in the group with low BMD, which indicates a diminished osteoblastic bone formation activity while there

were no differences with regard to bone resorption markers. Moreover, osteocalcin levels explain 10% of the variation of lumbar spine Z-score.”
“Objective: To study patients’ satisfaction in rehabilitation services and its relation check details to staff job satisfaction in public, private and teaching hospitals in Jeddah. Method: A cross sectional survey was used to measure patients’ satisfaction with rehabilitation services in ten different hospitals in Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). A validated Monnin and Perneger’s questionnaire with a 5-points Likert scale was utilized. At the same time, staff job satisfaction was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in the same health care facilities. Results: On 725 patients

who responded to the survey, 80.6% were overall satisfied with the rehabilitation services they received. Patient satisfaction was significantly different (p=0.001) between hospital types. In average, 88.5% of the patients of Selleckchem LY411575 the teaching hospitals were satisfied with the rehabilitation services, compared

to S63845 supplier 77% of the patients in the public hospitals and 75.7% of the patients in the private hospitals. Moreover there was no statistically significant correlation between staff job satisfaction and patients’ satisfaction. Conclusion: Patients’ satisfaction with rehabilitation services was the highest in the teaching hospitals in comparison with the other types of health care facilities. Patients’ satisfaction was however not significantly correlated with the staff job satisfaction. [Isabelle CN Devreux, Agnes Jacquerye, France Kittel, Enas Elsayed and Bahjat Al-Awa Benchmarking of patient satisfaction with physical rehabilitation services in various hospitals of Jeddah] Life Science Journal 2012; 9(3):73-78]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 11″
“delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptors are considered a therapeutic target in Parkinson’s disease, although the use of DOP agonists may be limited by side effects, including convulsions. To circumvent this issue, we evaluated whether blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) tone potentiated the antiparkinsonian effects of DOP agonists, thus allowing for reduction of their dosage.

Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key inter

Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid

the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to Kinase Inhibitor Library be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress find more is likely to be better met.”
“Shipboard grazing experiments were conducted in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank during of June 2006 to estimate zooplankton community grazing impact on a natural bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Surface seawater samples

containing natural populations of grazers and A. fundyense from 23 stations were incubated at ambient temperatures. Concentrations of A. fundyense after incubations were compared to those at the start of each experiment to determine net increases due to population growth, or decreases presumed to be primarily due to grazing losses. Abundances of both microzooplankton (tintinnids, oligotrich ciliates, rotifers, copepod nauplii and heterotrophic dinoflagellates) and mesozooplankton AZD8055 in vivo (copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods, rotifers,

marine cladocerans, and meroplankton) grazers in experimental aliquots were also determined. The total zooplankton community had minimal grazing impact on natural populations of A. fundyense at most stations. At 70% of the stations where grazing experiments were performed, there were no significant differences in initial and final concentrations of A. fundyense. This indicated that growth of, and grazing on A. fundyense were in approximate balance. At 2 stations, which had the highest A. fundyense abundances of the cruise (>10(4) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly negative, indicating that net population growth of A. fundyense exceeded grazing losses. At 5 stations, which had low concentrations of A. fundyense (10(2)-10(3) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly positive, indicating that losses of A. fundyense due to grazing exceeded net population growth. For stations with significant differences between Initial and Grazed concentrations of A. fundyense, grazing had the greatest impact at lower concentrations of A. fundyense, and grazing impact by the larger mesozooplankton was inversely related to zooplankton abundance.

05) The mean QuickDash also improved from 66 5 (SD 25 7) to 40 2

05). The mean QuickDash also improved from 66.5 (SD 25.7) to 40.2 (SD 24) (p smaller than 0.01). The mean EQ-5D improved from 0.68 (SD 0.2) to 0.75 (SD Staurosporine 0.13) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Three patients were revised because of loosening, 2 more patients were re-operated. This resulted in a Kaplan-Meier survival of 90 % (CI 72-97) for the study period. The Discovery system has shown satisfactory results

in RA patients even if the rate of complication remained relatively high. Further follow-up is required to investigate the radiological changes observed in some of our patients.”
“We evaluated the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against urinary isolates in a region in Greece that exhibits considerable antimicrobial resistance by evaluating

retrospectively relevant susceptibility data retrieved from the microbiological library Temsirolimus order of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. We examined 578 urinary isolates. In total, 516 (89.2%) were susceptible to fosfomycin; 415 isolates were gram negative, and 101 isolates were gram positive. Fosfomycin appears to exhibit good levels of in vitro activity against the examined urinary isolates.”
“Invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is one of the most common cancers in the United States, with no proven means for prevention other than systemic retinoids, which have significant toxicity, and sunscreen. We sought to determine the risk factors for invasive SCC on the face or ears in a high-risk population comprising 1,131 veterans in the Veterans Affairs Topical Tretinoin Chemoprevention (VATTC) Trial. Participants were required to have been diagnosed with at least two keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs) in the 5 years prior to enrollment. The median duration of follow-up was 3.7 years. Twenty-three percent of the participants developed a new invasive SCC, and the cumulative risk of invasive SCC was 30% at 5 years. The following factors independently predicted for new invasive SCCs: number of invasive selleck kinase inhibitor SCCs and number of in

situ SCCs in the 5 years prior to enrollment, actinic keratoses count at enrollment, a history of ever use of topical 5-fluorouracil, and total occupational time spent outdoors. In contrast, the use of angiotensin-convering enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers during the study and a history of warts anywhere on the body were found to protect against new invasive SCCs. These independent predictors remained the same for all SCCs (invasive and in situ combined). The number of basal cell carcinomas in the 5 years prior to enrollment, sunburns, sun sensitivity, and recreational sun exposure were not associated with new SCCs. These findings identify key risk factors for additional SCCs in patients with multiple prior KCs, and suggest that a history of warts may be associated with reduced SCC risk.

We speculate that the induction of GABA receptor signaling could

We speculate that the induction of GABA receptor signaling could represent a novel strategy to enhance neural versus glial specification from these cells through genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.

(C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The optimization of the enzymatic transesterification in solvent-free medium (SFM) of krill oil with selected phenolic acids (PAs), using two immobilized lipases, was investigated. The use of Novozym 435 with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid resulted in the highest bioconversion yield (BY). The central composite rotatable design was used to evaluate the effects of the PA PLX4032 concentration (PAC) and lipase concentration (LC) as well as the agitation speed (AS) on the BY of phenolic lipids. The initial findings indicated that the stationary point was a saddle point. To overcome this saddle point, sequential experiments have been carried out at fixed PAC, with LC and AS as the two independent variables. For the models with PAC, fixed at 10 and 20 mM, the results revealed that LC had a significant quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the %BY. whereas a significant linear effect was only obtained at PAC fixed at 20 mM. The AS had a significant quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on the %BY only

for the model with PAC fixed at 10mM. At fixed PAC of 20 mM, the response surface model predicted a BY of 75%, using a LC of 62 mg/mL and an AS of 154 rpm. ERK pathway inhibitors The subsequent verification experiment PXD101 chemical structure carried out under these conditions confirmed

the validity of the prediction. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Object. Microsurgical removal is the preferred treatment for most deep-seated, intraaxial tumors in the pediatric population. The feasibility of surgery as an option has improved with advances in surgical technology and technique. Tubular retractors disperse retraction forces over a greater surface area than do conventional retractors, which can lower the risk of ischemic complications. The authors describe their experience utilizing a new tubular retractor system specifically designed for cranial applications in conjunction with frameless neuronavigation.\n\nMethods. The Vycor ViewSite retractor was used in 4 pediatric patients (ages 15 months and 9, 10, and 16 years) with deep-seated intraaxial tumors. The lesions included a papillary tumor of the pineal region, a low-grade astrocytoma in the occipital lobe, a dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor arising from the basal ganglia, and an intraventricular low-grade glioma. The extent of white matter damage along the surgical trajectory (based on T2 or FLAIR and diffusion restriction/apparent diffusion coefficient signals) and the extent of resection were assessed on postoperative imaging.\n\nResults.

We compared two intervention groups with two assessment procedure

We compared two intervention groups with two assessment procedures.\n\nPatients and methods 16 children were treated consecutively with intensive stretching according to the Copenhagen method and 16 children

consecutively with casting according to the Ponseti technique, during their first 2 months of BVD-523 cell line age. The need for surgery was then assessed. At 4 months of age, all children used a dynamic Knee Ankle Foot Orthosis. The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP) and the Dimeglio Classification System (DCS) were used and compared during treatment and at 2 years of age.\n\nResults According to the CAP (but not the DCS) the casting technique was superior in clubfoot correction, apparent as better mobility and better quality of motion at 2 years of age. These children also required less surgery. The orthotics management functioned well in both groups, with high compliance and maintenance or slight improvement BMS 345541 of the clinical status except for morphology. DCS score changed over time but not between the groups. Because of its multidimensional and narrower scoring interval construct, the CAP enabled us to elucidate and evaluate different clinical functions.\n\nInterpretation The casting technique according to Ponseti seems to be the better of the two for clubfoot correction, regarding mobility and quality of motion. The Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (but not the Dimeglio Classification

System) was able to reveal differences between the Copenhagen and Ponseti treatment methods.”
“Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are commonly used to study biomarker expression in invasive breast cancers. Whether or not TMAs may also be a potentially useful platform for assessing biomarkers in benign proliferative breast lesions (BPBL) and normal breast tissue has not been previously studied in detail.\n\nMethods:

https://www.selleckchem.com/products/AZD0530.html We evaluated the success of capturing the targeted areas in TMAs constructed from benign breast biopsy blocks of 368 Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II participants. Areas targeted included 214 BPBL and 361 normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs). At least three 0.6 mm cores were obtained from the areas of interest from each donor paraffin block and arrayed into a recipient block. Sections cut from TMA blocks were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Each TMA slide was examined to determine the number of cores per case in which the targeted area was represented.\n\nResults: Overall, the targeted area was present in 776 of 1800 TMA cores (43%). At least 1 of the cores contained the area of interest for 401 of the 575 targeted foci (70%), including 76%, 66%, 60%, and 40% of cases in which the targeted areas were normal TDLUs, usual ductal hyperplasia, atypical lobular hyperplasia, and atypical ductal hyperplasia, respectively.\n\nConclusions: In TMAs constructed from BPBL and normal TDLUs, the targeted area was present on at least 1 core in 70% of cases.

Here we provide an overview of techniques that may

be use

Here we provide an overview of techniques that may

be used to produce and characterize reasonably well-defined CHOS fractions. We also present possible medical applications of CHOS, including tumor growth inhibition and inhibition of T(H)2-induced inflammation in asthma, as well as SN-38 ic50 use as a bone-strengthener in osteoporosis, a vector for gene delivery, an antibacterial agent, an antifungal agent, an anti-malaria agent, or a hemostatic agent in wound-dressings. By using well-defined CHOS-mixtures it will become possible to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these bioactivities.”
“Acute aortofemoral graft occlusion is often effectively treated with endovascular therapy but a substantial proportion of patients experience failure or complications of this therapy, and most of them require definitive surgery for the underlying inflow, outflow, or graft disease. BTSA1 ic50 We describe a case of an aortofemoral graft occlusion that was successfully treated with the Trellis thrombectomy-thrombolysis system (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). Subsequent stenting of the graft obviated the need for a definitive

graft revision surgery. The Trellis system combines mechanical and local pharmacologic lysis of the thrombus, with more rapid and more effective thrombus dissolution and theoretically less risk of systemic dispersion of the thrombolytic agent and less bleeding. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Aim:\n\nThe aim of this prospective study was to compare diagnosis, severity of trauma

and treatment of traumatic injuries to the primary dentition in two groups of children, the first recommended for treatment by general SRT2104 cell line practitioners and the second referred for treatment by a specialist paediatric dentist.\n\nMaterials and methods:\n\nA total of 323 children with traumatic injuries, 184 boys and 139 girls aged 7-83 months, participated in the study. All the children had first presented at a Public Dental Service clinic where they were examined by general dentists who decided, based on the severity of the trauma, to assign each child to one of the following two groups: Group A – recommended for treatment at the general practise (166 children with 257 traumatized incisor teeth). Group B – recommended for referral to a specialist in paediatric dentistry (157 children with 261 traumatized incisor teeth). Even in Group A, the specialist controlled the treatment decisions. The clinical diagnose and follow-up followed the recommendations presented by Andreasen & Andreasen.\n\nResults:\n\nThe distribution of trauma by age was similar in both groups, with about 60% occurring between 1 and 3 years. More injured teeth were extracted in children in Group B (n = 111) than in Group A (n = 33). A higher percentage of intruded primary incisors were recorded in Group B (24%) compared with Group A (16%).

Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally goo

Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 175 g/L gelrite. Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were

shifted CO basal MS medium find more supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The planners with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plandets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.”
“Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder associated with intellectual disability in one-third of cases. Recent findings support Mendelian inheritance in subgroups of patients with the disease. The purpose of this study was to identify a novel selleck chemicals llc genetic cause of paraplegic CP with intellectual disability in a consanguineous Pakistani family. Methods: We performed whole-exome

sequencing (WES) in two brothers with CP and intellectual disability. Analysis of AP4M1 mRNA was performed using quantitative real-time PCR on total RNA from cultured fibroblasts. The brothers were

investigated clinically and by MRI. Results: We identified a novel homozygous AP4M1 mutation c.194_195delAT, p.Y65Ffs*50 in the affected brothers. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed markedly reduced AP4M1 mRNA levels suggesting partial non-sense mediated mRNA decay. Several clinical and MRI features were consistent VS-4718 concentration with AP-4 complex deficiency. However, in contrast to previously reported cases with AP4M1 mutations our patients show an aggressive behavior and a relatively late onset of disease. Conclusion: This study shows an AP4M1 mutation associated with aggressive behavior in addition to mild dysmorphic features, intellectual disability, spastic paraparesis and reduced head circumference. Our findings expand the clinical spectrum associated with AP-4 complex deficiency and the study illustrates the importance of MRI and WES in the diagnosis of patients with CP and intellectual disability.”
“The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of smaller than = 1 .

In humans,

In humans, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Temsirolimus.html ground surfaces have been found to offer significant advantages in distance perception and visual-search tasks (“ground dominance”). The present study used a comparative perspective to investigate the ground-dominance effect in chimpanzees, a species that spends time both on the ground and in trees. During the experiments chimpanzees and humans engaged in a search for a cube on a computer screen; the target cube was darker

than other cubes. The search items were arranged on a ground-like or ceiling-like surface, which was defined by texture gradients and shading. The findings indicate that a ground-like, but not a ceiling-like, surface facilitated the search for a difference in luminance among both chimpanzees and humans. Our findings suggest the operation of a ground-dominance effect on visual search in both species.”
“Endothelium lining the cardiovascular system is highly sensitive to hemodynamic shear stresses that act at the vessel luminal surface in the direction of blood flow. Physiological variations of shear stress regulate acute changes in vascular diameter

and when sustained induce slow, adaptive, structural-wall remodeling. Both processes are endothelium-dependent and are systemically and regionally compromised by hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and inflammatory disorders. Shear stress spans a range of spatiotemporal scales and contributes to regional and focal heterogeneity of endothelial gene expression, which is important in vascular pathology. Regions of flow disturbances near arterial branches, bifurcations Anlotinib in vivo and curvatures result in complex spatiotemporal shear stresses and their www.selleckchem.com/products/ink128.html characteristics can predict atherosclerosis susceptibility. Changes in local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify shear stress characteristics at the endothelium. Intravascular devices can also influence flow-mediated endothelial responses. Endothelial flow-induced

responses include a cell-signaling repertoire, collectively known as mechanotransduction, that ranges from instantaneous ion fluxes and biochemical pathways to gene and protein expression. A spatially decentralized mechanism of endothelial mechanotransduction is dominant, in which deformation at the cell surface induced by shear stress is transmitted as cytoskeletal tension changes to sites that are mechanically coupled to the cytoskeleton. A single shear stress mechanotransducer is unlikely to exist; rather, mechanotransduction occurs at multiple subcellular locations.”
“Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) and Periotest (R) have been widely used to evaluate measurements of the stability of implants in clinical studies and animal experiments. In animals, these measurements are often made after bone has been fixed in formalin.

jirovecii antibody responses Whether smoking exerts an immunosup

jirovecii antibody responses. Whether smoking exerts an immunosuppressive effect that affects the P. jirovecii antibody response, colonization, or subsequent risk for disease is unclear; prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate these findings further.”
“Rapid information processing in our nervous system relies on high-frequency fusion of transmitter-filled vesicles at chemical synapses. HIF inhibitor Some sensory synapses possess prominent electron-dense ribbon structures that provide a scaffold for tethering synaptic vesicles at the active zone (AZ), enabling sustained vesicular release. Here, we review functional data indicating that some central and neuromuscular synapses can also

sustain vesicle-fusion rates that are comparable to those of ribbon-type sensory synapses. Comparison of the ultrastructure across these different types of synapses, together with recent work showing that cytomatrix proteins can tether vesicles and speed vesicle reloading, suggests that filamentous structures EVP4593 NF-��B inhibitor may play a key role in vesicle supply. We discuss potential mechanisms by which vesicle tethering could contribute to sustained high rates of vesicle fusion across ribbon-type, central, and neuromuscular synapses.”
“Background: This article reports sensory reconstruction of a finger pulp defect using a dorsal homodigital island flap including double dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves.\n\nMethods:

From February of 2008 to December of 2009, the dorsal homodigital island flap was used in 15 fingers in 15 patients. The average patient age was 32 years. The injured digits included six index, six long, and three ring fingers. The mean size

of the finger pulp defects was 2.4 x 2.0 cm, the mean flap size was 2.5 x 2.1 cm, and the mean pedicle length was 1.2 cm. Neurorrhaphy was performed between the dorsal branches of the proper digital nerves and the proper digital nerves at the recipient site. Flap sensation was assessed using static two-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament testing. For comparison, 28 patients treated using a cross-finger flap including a single nerve branch from February of 2005 to October of 2007 were included.\n\nResults: In the study group, all flaps survived completely. At a mean follow-up KPT-8602 cell line of 19 months, the mean static two-point discrimination and Semmes-Weinstein monofilament scores on the pulp were 5.8 mm and 3.94, respectively. In the comparison group, the scores were 8.4 mm and 4.11, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in static two-point discrimination and no significant difference in Semmes-Weinstein monofilament scores.\n\nConclusions: The dorsal homodigital island flap is an alternative for finger pulp reconstruction. The authors suggest performing double neurorrhaphies to improve flap sensation. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 130: 1077, 2012.