Their tensile values were either moderate (E approximate to 45-55

Their tensile values were either moderate (E approximate to 45-55 GPa, sigma approximate Selleckchem BI-D1870 to 1800-1000 MPa) or high

(E > 55 GPa, sigma > 1000 MPa). Three major types of stress-strain behaviour were observed, but in different proportions in each sample. The first one consisted of a linear tensile behaviour; the second one was composed of two linear distinct sections, and the third one displayed a non-linear section at the beginning of the loading stage up to a threshold point, followed by a section where the tangent modulus increased up to failure. The samples exhibiting a large proportion of the third type of behaviour were characterised by high tensile properties. The extent of the non-linear section highly depended on the variety. Within the Marylin variety, the tensile properties were higher when the non-linear section was smaller. Considering the fibre as a composite

per se, reinforced by cellulose microfibrils coated with hemicelluloses embedded in a matrix of incrusting pectins, we found some correlation between tensile behaviours and the cell-wall composition that highlighted the importance of the hemicelluloses and hemicelluloses/pectins ratio. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Contents Little is known about the response of the bitch’s reproductive tract to mating or of the role of male accessory gland secretions in the female. In this clinical study, the component GSK1210151A mw stimuli causing mating-induced uterine

contractions were investigated in 64 bitches. Basal uterine contractions were present during oestrus and a significant increase in the frequency of contractions was observed during natural mating. Neither teasing with a male nor stimulation of the vagina or cervix by vaginal or transcervical insemination (TCI) caused an increase in the frequency of uterine contractions. Increased contractions were however present after both vaginal and AZD2014 transcervical insemination when the vestibule was distended, and dorsal wall of the vaginal was manually stimulated. Interestingly, this increase in uterine contractions was partially ameliorated when prostatic fluid was used as a flushing component following transcervical insemination. Two further studies performed with 72 bitches of which 18 were each inseminated transcervically with fresh or frozen semen flushed into the uterus with either saline or prostatic fluid demonstrated that prostatic fluid significantly increased the pregnancy rate and litter size of both groups. There are important mechanisms regulating the transport and elimination of sperm from the bitch’s reproductive tract. Whilst physical aspects of coitus are undoubtedly involved in initiating uterine contractions, prostatic fluid appears to have an important role in modulating uterine contractions and fertility.

Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investiga

Studies were included if a statistical relationship was investigated between measures of free living physical activity (PA) in subjects with LBP and LBP outcome measures. Twelve studies (seven cohort

and five cross-sectional) were included. One prospective study reported a statistically significant relationship between increased leisure time activity and improved LBP outcomes, and one cross-sectional study found that lower levels of sporting activity were associated with higher levels of pain and disability. All other studies (n = 10) found no relationship between measures of activity levels and either pain or disability. Heterogeneity of study designs, particularly in terms of activity measurement, made comparisons between studies difficult. These data suggest that the activity levels of patients with NSLBP are neither associated with, nor predictive of, disability or pain levels. Validated activity measurement ALK inhibitor in prospective research is required to better evaluate the relationships between PA and LBP.”
“Ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acesulfamate ([BMIM]Ace)-organic solvents mixtures were utilized in the dissolution and extraction of lignin from eucalyptus. The resulting carbohydrate-enriched materials were subsequently extracted with 70% ethanol containing 1 M NaOH. The results showed that the yield of alkaline ethanol lignin (AEL, 8.0-23.3%) was

relatively higher than that of IL-organic solvents RG-7388 cell line lignin (IOL, 11.5-15.4%, based on the Klason lignin content). The chemical structures of the lignin fractions obtained were LY2228820 mw characterized by carbohydrate analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and 2 D HSQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The IOL fractions exhibited a larger molecular weight (M-w, 9050-6590 g/mol) and a higher polydispersity compared to the AEL fractions (M-w, 3820-2440 g/mol) except for IL-dioxane lignin (M-w 1005 g/mol). Moreover,

2 D NMR spectra of ILL and AEL fractions showed a predominance of beta-O-4′ aryl ether linkages (77.4 and 79.0% of total side chains, respectively), followed by beta-beta’ resinol-type linkages (12.1 and 13.8%), and lower amounts of beta-5′ (4.2 and 3.3%) and spirodienone linkages. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Introduction: The preclinical development and clinical progression of potential anticancer agents are highly time and resource-intensive. Traditionally, promising compounds in vitro undergo further screening in xenograft models, a long process that uses large numbers of animals. In order to hasten compound progression, the hollow fiber assay (HFA) was developed by the US National Cancer Institute as an additional filtering step in drug development, bridging the gap between in vitro and xenograft compound screening.

Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, U

Anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of CHS2, LDOX, OMT, UFGT, MYBA1, and MYB5a genes were also affected. Other regulatory genes were less affected or not affected at all by these treatments. Non-transcriptional control mechanisms

for flavonoid synthesis are also suggested, especially during the initial stages of ripening. Although berries from the leaf removal treatment received more light than shaded fruits, malvidin-3-glucoside and total flavonol content was reduced compared this website with the treatment without leaf removal. This work reveals that flavonol-related gene expression responds rapidly to field changes in light levels, as shown by the treatment in which shaded fruits were exposed to light in the late stages of ripening. Taken together, this study establishes MYB-specific responsiveness for the effect of sun exposure and sugar transport on flavonoid synthesis.”
“Background: Free intraperitoneal tumour cells are an independent indicator of poor prognosis, and are encorporated in current staging systems in upper gastrointestinal cancers, but not colorectal cancer. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the role and prognostic significance of positive peritoneal lavage in colorectal cancer.

Methods: A search was undertaken of PUBMED/Medline and Cochrane databases for English language articles from 1990 to 2012 using a predefined search strategy. Both detection of free tumour cells

and/or detection of tumour-associated antigens learn more in peritoneal lavage fluid were considered a positive lavage. Primary endpoints were rates of positive lavage, recurrence and survival.

Results: Of 3805 articles identified by title,

18 met inclusion criteria (n = 3197 patients, 59.5% colon, 40.5% rectal cancer). There was heterogeneity across studies in method of detection of peritoneal disease with 7 studies using more than one method (conventional cytology (14 studies), immunological techniques (6 studies), molecular techniques (4 studies)). The rate of positive lavage varied from 2.1% to 52% across studies, with a weighted mean rate of positive lavage of 13.17% overall (95% CI 12.74-13.59). In 10 studies (n = 2017) positive peritoneal lavage was associated with worse survival, and with increased recurrence in 12 (n = 2371). Clinicopathological factors frequently associated with positive lavage Selleck Debio-1347 included macroscopic peritoneal disease, increasing tumour stage and nodal disease.

Conclusion: Positive peritoneal lavage is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. However, its utility in staging colorectal cancer is currently limited by wide variation in rates of positive lavage between studies due to differences in methods of peritoneal lavage fluid analysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We successfully treated 2 pediatric cases of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder with sumatriptan.

, which are the main reason for the growth of nonconducting trees

, which are the main reason for the growth of nonconducting trees. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3325-3330, 2009″
“Skin rejuvenating effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for photoaged skin has been well-documented

in several clinical trials. Different photosensitizers (5-aminolevulinic acid, methyl aminolevulinate) and diverse light sources (light-emitting diodes, lasers, intense pulsed light) have been used with promising results. An improvement of lentigines, skin roughness, fine lines and sallow complexion Eltanexor ic50 has been achieved with PDT. These clinically evident effects are at least in part due to histologically proven increase of collagen and decrease of elastotic material in the dermis. Effective improvement of photoaged skin, simultaneous treatment and possibly also prevention of actinic keratoses, the possibility of repeated treatments and, in contrast to other procedures, limited and calculable side effects make PDT a promising procedure for skin rejuvenation.”
“Homopolymer of vinylidene fluoride and its copolymers containing hexafluoropropylene (HFP) were prepared from free radical solution polymerizations and spin-coated on the glass slides to fabricate thin film with a thickness of similar to 1 mu m. It was found that the surface morphology of fluorinated

thin films was strongly dependent on the crystallinity of polymers,

GW120918 In addition, the surface morphology selleck chemicals was the most important factor to determine the optical transmittance of glass coated with the fluoropolymer thin film. As decreasing the crystallinity of the polymer by introducing HFP with a bulky CF(3) moiety, the surface of thin film became flattened and the transmittance of visible light was increased by reducing scattering. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 3331-3337, 2009″
“In this paper the Sn loss from thin films of the material system Cu-Zn-Sn-S and the subsystems Cu-Sn-S and Sn-S in high vacuum is investigated. A combination of in situ x-ray diffractometry and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) at a synchrotron light source allowed identifying phases, which tend to decompose and evaporate a Sn-containing compound. On the basis of the XRF results a quantification of the Sn loss from the films during annealing experiments is presented. It can be shown that the evaporation rate from the different phases decreases according to the order SnS -> Cu(2)SnS(3)-> Cu(4)SnS(4)-> Cu(2)ZnSnS(4). The phase SnS is assigned as the evaporating compound. The influence of an additional inert gas component on the Sn loss and on the formation of Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) thin films is discussed.

Default/suggested parameters were used to run these tools The mi

Default/suggested parameters were used to run these tools. The missense sSNVs detected in these samples were validated through PCR and direct sequencing of genomic DNA from the samples. We also simulated 10 tumor-normal pairs to explore the ability

of these programs to detect low allelic-frequency GSK2126458 order sSNVs.

Results: Out of the 237 sSNVs successfully validated in our cancer samples, VarScan 2 and MuTect detected the most of any tools (that is, 204 and 192, respectively). MuTect identified 11 more low-coverage validated sSNVs than VarScan 2, but missed 11 more sSNVs with alternate alleles in normal samples than VarScan 2. When examining the false calls of each tool using 169 invalidated sSNVs, we observed > 63% false calls detected in the lung cancer cell lines had alternate alleles in normal samples. Additionally, from our simulation data, VarScan 2 identified more sSNVs than other tools, Selleckchem Stattic while MuTect characterized most low allelic-fraction sSNVs.

Conclusions: Our study explored the typical false-positive and false-negative detections that arise

from the use of sSNV-calling tools. Our results suggest that despite recent progress, these tools have significant room for improvement, especially in the discrimination of low coverage/allelic-frequency sSNVs and sSNVs with alternate alleles in normal samples.”
“Two new steroid glycosides, stauntosaponins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from

Cynanchum stauntonii (Decne.) Schltr.ex Levl. (Asclepiadaceae) together with five known compounds, anhydrohirundigenin monothevetoside, glaucogenin C mono-D-thevetoside, hirundoside A, cynatratoside A, and glaucogenin C. Stauntosaponins A and B were formulated Dihydrotestosterone inhibitor as 3-O-beta-D-oleandropyranosyl-14, 16: 15, 20: 18, 20-triepoxy-14, 15-secopregn-4, 6, 8(14)-triene (1) and 3-O-beta-D-thevetopyranosyl-14, 16: 15, 20: 18, 20-triepoxy-14, 15-secopregn-4, 6, 8(14)-triene (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate inhibitory activities against Na+/K+-ATPase with IC50 values of 21 and 29 mu M, respectively, whereas ouabain as a positive control displayed an IC50 value of 3.5 mu M. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose of review

Exposure to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMAs) in fetal and neonatal life has lifelong immunological consequences. Although there is a plethora of evidence of effects of mother on the immune responses of her offspring, there is very little knowledge available on how exposure to NIMA can result in either tolerance or sensitization. Understanding the mechanism of NIMA effects will impact different fields of immunology including transplantation, autoimmunity, and tumor immunotherapy.

Finally, the increases in attachment anxiety and avoidance were p

Finally, the increases in attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively associated with the increase in post-traumatic Buparlisib in vivo symptoms among both study groups. Further analyses indicated that early PTSD symptoms predicted later attachment better than early attachment predicted later PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions. The results suggest that: (1) complex traumas are implicated in attachment orientations and PTSD symptoms even many years after captivity; (2) there is an increase in attachment insecurities (anxiety, avoidance) and an increase in PTSD symptoms decades after the captivity;

(3) and post-traumatic stress symptoms predict attachment orientations better than attachment orientations predict an increase in PTSD symptoms.”

studies have consistently demonstrated that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is cardioprotective in different disease states. nNOS has been shown to delay transition to heart failure in response to pressure overload, to protect the myocardium from functional deterioration after myocardial infarction, and to decrease Blasticidin S cost mortality after myocardial infarction. Recent work identified the precise molecular mechanisms of nNOS action in the myocardium during rest and after myocardial damage. In animal models with nNOS overexpression restricted to cardiac myocytes and nNOS(-/-) mice, it was consistently demonstrated that nNOS decreased myocardial contractility via inhibition of the I-ca,I-L amplitude and [Ca2+](i) transients. The mitochondria and xanthine oxidoreductase were identified as further targets for nNOS in cardiac disease models. In this review, we focus on the protective see more effects of nNOS after ischemia-reperfusion injury, with emphasis on the subcellular localization of nNOS and its putative targets. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 2011;21:58-63) (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Artificial electron carriers have been widely used to shift the solvent ratio toward butanol in acetonebutanol-ethanol

(ABE) fermentation of solventogenic clostridia according to decreased hydrogen production. In this study, first insights on the molecular level were gained to explore the effect of methyl viologen addition to cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Employing batch fermentation in mineral salts medium, the butanol:acetone ratio was successively increased from 2.3 to 12.4 on a 100-ml scale in serum bottles and from 1.4 to 16.5 on a 1300-ml scale in bioreactors, respectively. The latter cultures were used for DNA microarray analyses to provide new information on the transcriptional changes referring to methyl viologen exposure and thus, exhibit gene expression patterns according to the manipulation of the cellular redox balance.

However, univariate analysis showed that neutrophil count (OR, 3

However, univariate analysis showed that neutrophil count (OR, 3.48; 95% Cl, 1.23-9.85) but not hs-CRT was associated with echolucent carotid plaques. At multivariate analysis, neutrophil count exceeding the median remained associated with echolucent carotid plaques (OR, 5.71; 95% CI, 1.37-23.85), whereas the association between femoral and carotid echolucency was attenuated (Oft, 3.75; 95% CI, 0.98-4.43).

Conclusions. In PAD, the presence of echolucent femoral plaques is associated with a greater prevalence of echolucent

carotid plaques, probably as a consequence of a more pronounced inflammatory profile. This confirms and extends the finding that plaque echolucency is a multivessel phenomenon. Prospective

studies are needed to AG-120 mouse assess whether MK-2206 mouse carotid screening in PAD patients might contribute to improving clinical decision-making. (J Vasc Surg 2009;49:346-51.)”
“The aim of the present study is to investigate whether immunoreactive (1) calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) content is decreased in plasma and mesenteric arteries (resistance arteries) in middle-aged rats and if so, whether sex steroid hormones enhance I-CGRP in middle-aged female rats. We also examined whether vascular CGRP receptor components, calcitonin receptor like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity modifying protein 1 (RAMP(1)) are elevated by sex steroid hormones treatment in middle-aged female rats. Young adult (3 months old) and middle-aged (10-12 months old) ovariectomized rats were treated subcutaneously with estradiol-17 beta (E(2); 2 mg), Caspase Inhibitor VI nmr progesterone (P(4); 5 mg), E(2) + P(4) (2 mg + 20 mg) or placebo (control). Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analysis were performed to measure I-CGRP content and CGRP receptor components in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), in resistance arteries and in plasma. Immunofluorescent staining

methods were employed to determine cellular localization of CRLR, RAMP(1) in resistance arteries. Our data demonstrated that I-CGRP content was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the plasma and resistance arteries of middle-aged female rats compared to young controls. Both RAMP(1) and CRLR were concentrated in vascular endothelium and the underlying smooth muscle cells. RAMP(1) but not CRLR appeared to be decreased in middle-aged rat vasculature. Chronic perfusion of sex steroid hormones to ovariectomized rats: (1) significantly (p<0.05) elevated I-CGRP in the DRG and in the plasma, and (2) significantly elevated RAMP(1) (p<0.05) but did not alter CRLR in resistance arteries. These data suggest that female sex steroid treatment enhances I-CGRP and its receptors, and thus regulate the blood pressure in aged female rats. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

The discrepancy may be minimized by subtracting an estimate of th

The discrepancy may be minimized by subtracting an estimate of this contribution. Published by Elsevier Inc.”
“Monosomal karyotype (MK) refers to the Roscovitine molecular weight presence of two or more distinct autosomal monosomies or a single monosomy associated with a structural abnormality. In acute myeloid leukemia, MK has been shown to be prognostically worse than an otherwise complex karyotype. The current study examines whether the same holds true for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). A total of 127 MDS patients (median age 70 years) with a complex karyotype were considered; 106 (83%) met the above-stipulated criteria for MK and 21 (17%) had a complex karyotype without monosomies. Survival was significantly inferior in

patients with MK compared with those with a complex karyotype without monosomies (P = 0.01; HR 1.9, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.1-3.3). Multivariable analysis identified MK (P = 0.002), advanced age (P = 0.0004) and bone marrow blast percentage (0.04) as independent risk factors for survival. There was no difference in survival among MK patients further substratified by the presence or absence of monosomy 7 and/or monosomy 5. Although not statistically significant, leukemia-free survival was also worse with MK compared with complex karyotype without monosomies (P = 0.09; HR 2.7, 95% CI 0.8-9.0). MK in MDS identifies a prognostically worse subgroup of patients with a complex karyotype, regardless selleckchem of whether monosomy 7 or 5 is part of the MK component.

Leukemia (2011) 25, 266-270; doi:10.1038/leu.2010.258; published online 12 November 2010″
“Aim: PR81 is a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to MUC1 antigen that is over expressed in 80% of breast cancers. In this study, we developed a method for indirect labeling of PR81 with lutetium-177 and performed all preclinical qualifications in production of a biologic agent for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

Materials and Methods: The radiochemical purity

and in vitro stability of (177)Lu labeled PR81 was determined by instant thin layer chromatography. The immunoreactivity and cell toxicity of the complex were tested on MCF7 cell line. The biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were performed in BALB/c mice with breast tumor.

Results: The radiochemical purity was 91.2 +/- 3.8% after 2 h. The in vitro stabilities in phosphate buffer and human blood serum were 83.1 +/- 3.4% and 76.2 +/- 3.6% at 96 h, respectively. The immunoreactivity of the complex was 83.4 +/- 2.4%. The cell toxicity study showed that the complex inhibited 85.2 +/- 3.4% growth of MCF7 cells at a concentration of 2500 ng/ml after 96 h. The biodistribution and scintigraphy studies showed the accumulation of the complex at the site of tumors with high sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusion: The results showed that one may consider (177)Lu-DOTA PR81 as a potential radiopharmaceutical for therapy of human breast cancer, which needs further investigations. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Materials and Methods: From 1994 to 2006, 432 patients with inter

Materials and Methods: From 1994 to 2006, 432 patients with intermediate risk prostate cancer as defined by the National Comprehensive Cancer Selleckchem CB-5083 Network were treated with low dose rate brachytherapy and external beam irradiation with or without 9 months of androgen suppressive therapy. Gleason score was 7 in 76% of cases and prostate specific antigen was 1.4 to 20 ng/ml (median 7.6). Of the patients 350 received androgen suppressive therapy and 82 did not. The biologically effective dose was 142 to 280 Gy2 (median 206). Followup was 23 to 155 months (median 56).

Results: The overall 8-year biochemical failure-free rate using the Phoenix definition in patients with vs without

androgen suppressive therapy was 92% vs 92% (p = 0.4). The therapy had no significant impact on the biochemical failure-free rate in patients with Gleason score 7 (92% vs 90.5%, p = 0.55), prostate specific antigen 10 to 20 ng/ml (92% vs 100%, p = 0.32), T2b-T2c disease (89.5% vs 97%, p = 0.27) and more than 1 intermediate risk feature (90% vs 100%, p = 0.2).

Conclusions: We addressed the relative importance of radiation dose vs hormonal therapy for intermediate risk prostate Etomoxir concentration cancer. With high biologically effective dose combination treatment androgen suppressive therapy did not have a significant impact on the 8-year biochemical failure-free rate. We question

its routine use in this setting.”
“The relevant literature concerning cognitive effects of amphetamine and methylphenidate,

was reviewed, with an emphasis on research conducted in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. As first-line treatment for ADHD, stimulant drugs are well-known to improve attention and concentration. Yet, there is increasing this website evidence that (as with children and adolescents), they do not promote learning and academic achievement in adult college students with ADHD. A review of neuropsychological studies indicates that, although response latencies are reduced, performance of ADHD adults on tests of ‘distractibility’ and ‘planning’ is also not consistently improved by stimulants. Studies in non-ADHD adults suggest that stimulants do not promote acquisition of new information, might improve retention of previously acquired information, and facilitate memory consolidation, but may actually impair performance of tasks that require adaptation, flexibility and planning. It is still not clear if improvement only occurs when there is a baseline deficit. Stimulants may influence cognition by their effects on physiological arousal. Regardless, the evidence does not support the conclusion that stimulants are cognitive ‘enhancers.’ (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: While many primary care providers advocate routine screening urinalyses, a heme positive dipstick test often leads to a false-positive diagnosis of hematuria, or pseudohematuria.

71-1 00) Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences betw

71-1.00). Paired t-tests revealed no significant differences between cases and controls for log-transformed mean values of any analyte; however, in an adjusted

model the odds ratios for autism were 1.91 (p = 0.29) and 1.79 (p = 0.36) respectively, for subjects with total PCBs and DDE above the 90th percentile of control values. Levels of prenatal PCB exposure in FIPS-A were similar to the levels which previously correlated with poorer neurodevelopmental measures in other populations. Further study in a larger sample will be required to fully determine whether exposure to high POP levels is associated with autism diagnosis in the population. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Azolla microphylla plants exposed directly to NaCl (13 dsm(-1)) did not survive the salinity treatment beyond a period of one day, whereas plants exposed directly to 4 and 9 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass. However, plants pre-exposed to NaCl (2 dsm(-1)) for 7 days on subsequent exposure to 13 dsm(-1) NaCl were able to grow and produce biomass although at a slow rate and are hereinafter designated as pre-exposed plants. The pre-exposed and directly exposed plants distinctly differed in their response to salt in terms of lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, APX, and CAT, and Na(+)/K(+) ratio. Efficient

modulation of antioxidant this website enzymes coupled with regulation of ion transport play an important role in the induction of salt tolerance. Results show that it is possible to induce salt adaptation in A. microphylla by pre-exposing selleck kinase inhibitor them to low concentrations of NaCl.”
“Purpose: Most animal models of stress urinary incontinence simulate

maternal injuries of childbirth since delivery is a major risk factor but they do not reproduce the nerve stretch known to occur during human childbirth. We hypothesized that pudendal nerve stretch produces reversible dysfunction of the external urethral sphincter.

Materials and Methods: Female virgin Sprague-Dawley (R) rats were anesthetized with urethane. Bilateral pudendal nerve stretch or sham injury was performed for 5 minutes. External urethral sphincter electromyography and leak point pressure were recorded immediately before and after, and 10, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after pudendal nerve stretch. Post-pudendal nerve stretch results were compared to prestretch values and to values in sham injured animals. The pudendal nerves underwent qualitative histological assessment. The nucleus of Onuf was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction for beta-APP and c-Fos expression as markers of neuronal activity and injury.

Results: A total of 14 rats underwent bilateral pudendal nerve stretch (9) or sham injury (5). Each nerve was stretched a mean +/- SEM of 74% +/- 18% on the left side and 63% +/- 13% on the right side.