Cancer-acquired lymphedema arises from dysfunctional fluid transport after lymphadenectomy performed for staging and to disrupt drainage pathways for regional control of disease. However, little is known about the normal regenerative processes of the lymphatics in response to lymphadenectomy and how these responses can be accelerated, delayed, or can impact metastasis. Methods: Changes in lymphatic “pumping” function and drainage patterns were non-invasively and longitudinally imaged using NIRF lymphatic imaging after popliteal lymphadenectomy in mice. In a cohort of mice, B16F10 melanoma was inoculated on the dorsal aspect of the paw 27 days after lymphadenectomy to assess how drainage patterns affect metastasis. Results: NIRF imaging demonstrates that, learn more although lymphatic function and drainage patterns change significantly in early response to popliteal lymph node (PLN) removal in mice, these changes are transient KPT-8602 in vivo and regress dramatically due to a high regenerative capacity of the lymphatics and co-opting of collateral lymphatic pathways around the site of obstruction. Metastases followed the pattern of collateral pathways and could be detected proximal to the site
of lymphadenectomy. Conclusions: Both lymphatic vessel regeneration and co-opting of contralateral vessels occur following lymphadenectomy, with contractile function restored within 13 days, providing a basis for preclinical and clinical investigations to hasten lymphatic repair and restore contractile lymphatic function after surgery to prevent cancer-acquired lymphedema. Patterns Ro-3306 cost of cancer metastasis after lymphadenectomy were altered, consistent with patterns of re-directed lymphatic
“Internal motions and flexibility are essential for biological functions in proteins. To assess the internal fluctuations and conformational flexibility of proteins, reliable computational methods are needed. In this study, wavelet transformation was used to filter out the noise and facilitate investigating the internal positional fluctuations of enzymes within nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure ensembles. Moreover, potential active sites were identified by combining with positional fluctuation score, sequence conservation, and solvent accessible surface area. Among the total 107 catalytic residues in 44 examined enzymes, 69 residues were identified correctly. Our results suggest that wavelet transform analysis of structure ensemble is applicable to extract essential fluctuation information of proteins; furthermore, analysis of positional fluctuations is helpful for the identification of catalytic residues.