Based upon extensive use of this scoring system, a score of 3 is

Based upon extensive use of this selleckchem scoring system, a score of 3 is generally limited to SCID mice, and a score of 1–2 is typical of immunocompetent C3H mice [4, 34, 35]. The prevalence of carditis was also blindly recorded, but a severity PF-02341066 nmr score is not possible with carditis, due to variation in severity among mice within a particular treatment group, thereby precluding accurate scoring [34]. Bacterial strains Low passage infectious B. burgdorferi s.s. strain B31-A3 (wild-type) was acquired from D. Scott Samuels, University of Montana, and utilized as

both a wild-type control and for genetic manipulation. B31-A3 is a clonal isolate of B31 MI, the prototype B31 strain utilized for genome sequencing [36, 37]. An additional B31-A3 variant, B. burgdorferi B31-A3-lp28-1-G, containing a gentamicin resistance gene on lp28-1 [38], was provided by D. Scott Samuels (originally from P. Rosa, Rocky Mountain Laboratories). Spirochetes were grown in modified Barbour Stoenner Kelly (BSKII) medium [39] with 6% rabbit serum. Inocula were enumerated by dark-field microscopy using a Petroff-Hausser chamber immediately prior to use, and serial 10-fold dilutions were prepared Metabolism inhibitor for evaluating median infectious doses. For

isolation of transformants, spirochetes were cultured on semi-solid gelatin-free BSKII medium supplemented with 1.7% dissolved agarose plus appropriate antibiotic (50 μg/ml streptomycin or 40 μg/ml gentamicin). Escherichia coli cloning strain TOP10F’ (Invitrogen, Inc., CA), was grown in Luria-Bertani broth under aerobic conditions at 37°C. Transformed E. coli were selectively cultured in broth medium with 50 μg/ml spectinomycin. Genetic modification of B. burgdorferi Arp null mutants (Δarp) were constructed by exchange of the arp open reading frame (ORF) with a mutagenic cassette via homologous recombination. The mutagenic cassette consisted of a streptomycin-spectinomycin

resistance cassette, flaB-aadA (kindly provided Progesterone by D. Scott Samuels, University of Montana, Missoula, MT), flanked by regions of the B. burgdorferi B31-A3 plasmid lp28-1 that flanked the arp gene at both the 5′ and 3′ regions. Single Overlap Extension PCR (SOEing) was used to join each part of the mutagenic cassette through primers containing overlapping homology (Table 4). First, the 5′ flanking region (258bp) was amplified using primers ARP01 and the SOEing primer ARP02, which included homology to the 5′ region of the flaB-aadA PCR product. The flaB-aadA product (1199bp) was amplified using primers ARP03 and the SOEing primer ARP04, which included homology to the 5′ region of the 3′ region PCR product. The 3′ flanking region (1309bp) was amplified using primers ARP05 and ARP06. Each part was gel purified using the Qiagen Gel Extraction Kit (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA). SOEing was performed using a 2μl aliquot of each part mixed with 0.

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