Between 1979 and 2008, 1,209 large whale entanglements were recor

Between 1979 and 2008, 1,209 large whale entanglements were recorded in Newfoundland and Labrador. These

were mostly humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae; 80%) and minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata; 15%). Dramatic declines in reported inshore whale entanglement rates were observed following the 1992 moratorium on Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries. Recently, more entanglements have been reported further offshore, largely due to expansion of fisheries targeting snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio). For all whale species, entanglement rates and associated mortality rates varied Epacadostat purchase considerably in different fishing gear. Fractions of humpback and minke whales found dead in different fishing GPCR Compound Library cell assay gear differed substantially, with minke whales far more likely to be found dead than humpback whales. “
“We estimated

the abundance of humpback whales in the North Pacific by capture-recapture methods using over 18,000 fluke identification photographs collected in 2004–2006. Our best estimate of abundance was 21,808 (CV = 0.04). We estimated the biases in this value using a simulation model. Births and deaths, which violate the assumption of a closed population, resulted in a bias of +5.2%, exclusion of calves in samples resulted in a bias of −10.5%, failure to achieve random geographic sampling resulted in a bias of −0.4%, and missed matches resulted in a bias of +9.3%. Known sex-biased sampling favoring males in breeding areas did not add significant bias if both sexes are proportionately sampled in the feeding areas. Our best estimate of abundance was 21,063 after accounting for a net bias of +3.5%. This estimate is likely to be lower than the true abundance due to two additional sources of bias: individual heterogeneity in the probability of being sampled (unquantified) and the likely existence of an unknown and unsampled breeding area (−8.7%). Results confirm that

the overall humpback whale population in the North Pacific has continued to increase and is now greater than some prior estimates of prewhaling abundance. “
“The ability to measure and age individuals within a population has many important applications, for example, for examining growth and determining size class. We developed a simple photogrammetric system using two parallel lasers and a digital camera, in order to measure dorsal fin Tau-protein kinase dimensions of free-ranging Hector’s dolphins. Laser dots were projected onto the fin, providing scale, thus allowing measurement as well as simultaneous photo-ID of 34 individuals from fin nicks and other marks. Multiple measurements (≥5) were available for six individuals; these resulted in mean CVs of 3.71% for fin length and 3.76% for fin height. Errors due to variations in angle and measurement were quantified via photography of a fiberglass Hector’s dolphin model. Allometric measurements and age data were collated from 233 autopsied Hector’s dolphins.

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