be/YGbyy9WoXz8) CH CK19low cells (asterisk in Fig 3) showed a c

be/YGbyy9WoXz8). CH CK19low cells (asterisk in Fig. 3) showed a cuboidal shape and weaker CK19 expression (white arrowhead in lower left panel) at the cell border immediately adjacent to the hepatocyte (white arrowheads in Fig. 3). Serial virtual step sectioning learn more is shown in Supporting Fig. 4 (Digital movie examples of the CH-Hepatocyte junction at 40× and 100× magnification can be seen at: (40×); (100×) Hepatocyte-associated nuclear transcription factor HNF427 and biliary associated transcription factor HNF1β28, 29 are essential for development and phenotypic maintenance of hepatocytes and mature BEC, respectively. We next determined whether any hybrid

or bipotential (HNF1β+/HNF4α+) cells existed in bile ducts and periportal regions of normal adult human livers. Portal/periportal ROIs from five normal human livers were subjected to analysis and the results displayed on multiparameter scatterplots showing nuclear size and signal intensity for CK19, HNF1β, and HNF4α (Fig. 4A). Tissue-tethered cytometry showed that most CK19+/HNF1βstrong/HNF4α-cells with small nuclei mapped HDAC inhibitor back to otherwise typical BEC lining portal tract bile ducts (cells “d” in Fig. 4B), as expected. Most CK19-/HNF1β-/HNF4αstrong

cells with large nuclei localized to otherwise typical mature hepatocytes (cells “e” in Fig. 4B), as expected. Two distinct populations of HNF4α+/HNF1β+ cells were identifiable in the X = HNF4α, Y = HNF1β scatterplot in Fig. 4A: (1) HNF1βstrong/HNF4αweak with a small nucleus (BEC-type) that showed phenotypic characteristics of BEC on routine light microscopy and (2) HNF1βweak/HNF4αstrong with a larger nucleus (hepatocyte-type) that showed 6-phosphogluconolactonase phenotypic characteristics of hepatocytes on routine light microscopy. Transcription factor localization was verified using single immunoperoxidase labeling of frozen sections of normal human livers (Supporting Fig. 5). The observation that the quantitatively

dominant transcription factor controlled the routine light microscopic phenotype of cells substantiated the validity of this approach: HNF4α-dominant cells appeared as hepatocytes and HNF1β-dominant cells appeared as BEC. Tissue tethering was used to localize the various HNF1β+/HNF4α+ populations. CK19+/HNF1βhigh/HNF4αlow BEC-type cells (white cells “a” in Fig. 4B) localized to CH, but were rare. HNF1βlow/HNF4αhigh hepatocyte-type cells (yellow cells “b and c” in Fig. 4B) localized to the interface zone of normal livers and two different morphological subtypes of CK19-/HNF1βweak/HNF4αstrong hepatocyte type cells were observed among periportal hepatocytes: one showed an oval-shaped intermediate-sized nucleus (“b” in Fig. 4B); the other contained a large round typical hepatocyte nucleus (“c” in Fig. 4B). Among the various cell types at the interface zone, the rarest cell was CK19+/HNF1β-/HNF4α+ cell (Navigation of the WSI using toggle switches to turn off/on various analytes can be viewed at: http://youtu.

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