By contrast, DLT3829 was predicted to play a role in light sensin

By contrast, DLT3829 was predicted to play a role in light sensing and to modulate the virulence of Xcc (under weak light). The four light-signalling components (XC_1036, XC_2324, XC_1476 and XC_3829) were confirmed in virulence assays and showed

that see more Xcc may exhibit modified virulence in response to lighting conditions. PYP, GAF and LOV/PAS domains are structurally similar and involved in cellular signalling, such as light for example. As these are domains with a highly conserved structure, SST-based clustering analysis can play a very crucial role in detecting protein functions, and several functional clusters were obtained by comparison of the SSTs of all these domains (Fig. 1c). Several Xcc PAS domains were predicted to have similar functions to the interior known PAS domains of a cluster, so that cluster I, II and IV domains were predicted to be involved in blue light sensing/signalling, while

two others (marked with pink or red shading in Fig. 1c) were thought to be involved in oxygen and red light signalling, respectively. In this way, several PYP and GAF domains may also be involved in light signalling. A total of 13 PAS proteins of Xcc involved in light signalling were identified with three series of tests Talazoparib in vitro (bacterial growth, virulence and motility) in this study, and five of 13 PAS proteins were GGDEF-characterized proteins (XC_1036, XC_1476, XC_2324, XC_3829 and XC_4313), the c-di-GMP signalling of which has been summarized in previous studies (Chang et al., 2001; Ryan et al., 2007; Hengge, 2009). In addition, GAF domains, which resemble the structure of the PAS domain, are potential light-sensing modules (Ho et al., 2000; Su & Lagarias, 2007) and were found in two (XC_2324 and XC_4313) of 13 PAS proteins, so that both PAS proteins still need to be

detected for functional confirmation of the PAS or GAF domain. XC_2324 was involved in red/far-red and oxygen signalling in the present research and was closely involved in the virulence of Xcc, which was also tested in Ryan’s research (Ryan et al., 2007). In addition, the results of research by Chang and colleagues indicated that binding of molecular oxygen to the PdeA1 of Acetobacter xylinum, which PAS-domain Carteolol HCl structure of the PdeA1 is very similar to XC_2324, modulates its enzymatic activity in cyclic di-GMP degradation (Chang et al., 2001). So, it remains to be determined whether XC_2324 is regulated by red/far-red light or oxygen produced by red/far-red light illumination or both. This work was supported by the Programme for State Key Laboratories, Ministry of Science and Technology of China. C.Z.H. was supported by Start-up Funding of Hainan University. “
“The genus Pycnoporus forms a group of four species known especially for producing high redox potential laccases suitable for white biotechnology.

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