(C) 2009 Elsevier B V All rights reserved “
“In this study,

(C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In this study, polyacrylic acid (PAA) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for increasing antifouling characteristic of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. Two different methods were applied for immobilization of TiO2 on buy eFT-508 PVDF membrane surface and compared their ability in flux recovery ratio of modified

membranes. One method was self-assembling of TiO2 on surface of PAA grafted membrane and another was initially functionalization of TiO2 by acrylic acid monomers and next in situ grafting polymerization of this blend solution, which called “grafting from” technique. SEM images show that TiO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly and completely in “grafting from” method rather than self-assembling procedure. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of PAA and TiO2 nanoparticles on the membrane surface. Antifouling properties were tested by using whey solution. Better resistance to fouling was observed for membranes prepared from functionalized TiO2 due to high grafting yield and low agglomeration of TiO2 in this method. Repeating the fouling process indicates that stability of nanoparticles on membrane surface during operation and cleaning process is high because of covalent attachment of TiO2 to PAA network. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

gene pools representative of Vitis vinifera L. subsp. vinifera (=subsp. sativa Beger) growing in the Maghreb regions (North Africa) from Tunisia (44), Algeria (31) and Morocco (18) and 16 wild grape accessions (Vitis see more vinifera L. subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin) Beger) from Tunisia were analysed for genetic diversity and differentiation at twenty nuclear microsatellites markers distributed throughout the 19 grape chromosomes. 203 alleles with a mean number of 10.15 alleles per locus were observed in a total of 109 accessions. Genetic diversities were high in all populations with values ranging from 0.6775 (Moroccan cultivars) to 0.7254 (Tunisian cultivars). F (st) pairwise values between cultivated grapevine populations were low but found to be significantly Selleck NVP-LDE225 different from zero.

High F (st) pairwise values were shown between wild and cultivated compartments. Two parent offspring relationships, two synonyms and two clones of the same cultivar were detected. The rate of gene flow caused by vegetative dissemination of cultivated grapevine plants was not sufficient to genetically homogenise the pools of cultivars grown in different regions. The Neighbour Joining cluster analysis showed a clear separation according to geographical origins for the cultivated grapevines gene pools and revealed a high dissimilarity between cultivated and wild grapevine. However, three cultivars (Plant d’Ouchtata 1, Plant de Tabarka 3 and Plant d’Ouchtata 3) are very close to wild accessions and may result from a hybridisation between cultivated and wild accessions.

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