Case example 1: Excerpt from the Advance Care Plan of Faith, a Ma

Case example 1: Excerpt from the Advance Care Plan of Faith, a Maori woman receiving haemodialysis. If I can no longer tell you myself I want those who care for me to know: I would like my cultural beliefs and values respected. I would like the hospital kaumatua [Maori elders] and Maori Catholic chaplain involved in Ruxolitinib my care. I would want them to observe appropriate process (e.g. prayers)

over my body if I passed away in hospital, [including] before my body was moved. Making decisions for a loved one at the end of their life has been found to be a significant burden for those called upon to do so.[8] Contributors to this burden include a need to make decisions under time pressure, reluctance to initiate discussions with the unwell person about end-of-life treatment preferences and conflict within a family about the appropriate course of treatment.[8] Other factors that increase the burden experienced are problems with doctor-patient communication, poor continuity of care within a health-care system and uncertainty about prognosis.[8] Caregivers and family may experience better bereavement outcomes when the patient has not been

exposed to aggressive medical interventions (e.g. artificial ventilation, resuscitation) near death[5] and the burden of decision-making has been reported to be reduced when the individual or Selleckchem IDH inhibitor family feel well informed of the patient’s wishes.[8] ACP has the potential to reduce the burden of decision-making on family members/caregivers because it provides an opportunity for the patient, family and health-care provider to reach a common understanding of the diagnosis, prognosis and goals and Ketotifen treatment preferences of the patient in the setting of deteriorating health with time to identify and understand uncertainty and conflicts of opinion. ACP also has the potential to improve continuity of

care when health-care systems support the appropriate sharing of this information with other health-care providers. Case example 2: Mrs A, a Samoan woman in her 60s receiving haemodialysis therapy. Mrs A had significant comorbid medical conditions in addition to her renal failure including recurrent unexplained bleeding per rectum, persistent anaemia, chronic atrial fibrillation, rheumatic valvular heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction and obstructive sleep apnoea. She and her husband, both native Samoan speakers, attended a haemodialysis review clinic with Dr Y shortly after an admission with rectal bleeding. At this appointment Dr Y broached the subject of prognosis and whether she had considered her wishes in the event of deterioration in her health. Mrs A was quite upset and Dr Y called on her a few days later at dialysis when Mrs A explained that she and her husband had thought Dr Y was saying she had only days to live.

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