Combining these high-resolution imaging techniques with the expre

Combining these high-resolution imaging techniques with the expression of fluorescent cytoskeletal fusion proteins in live cells using correlative microscopy procedures will usher in an radical change in our understanding of the molecular dynamics that underpin the organization and function of the cytoskeleton.”
“Mating plugs have been described HIF cancer in many species, and their presence often implies a function in protecting a male’s ejaculate. Yet, explicit functions are not always tested.

In this study, we test whether 123 fragments of male genitalia lodged in the female genital opening of the St Andrew’s Cross spider (Argiope keyserlingi) are mating plugs and prevent female remating. Further, we test whether copulation duration, cannibalism, and male or female size affect the lodgement and persistence of these genital fragments. We show that males always break off a genital fragment, which when lodged in the female genital opening, can successfully prevent female remating. However,

the lodgement of a genital fragment is not always successful and it may not persist for a prolonged period. Whether a genital fragment is successfully retained is influenced by female control over copulation duration. We have Etomoxir inhibitor previously shown that females can terminate copulation duration by attacking the male, which may or may not lead to cannibalism. If females terminate copulations early, genital fragments are either

not lodged or do not persist. Male size can offset female control with larger males lodging more persistent fragments. Contrary to predictions, sexual cannibalism was not related to how long the fragment persisted within the female. We demonstrate the existence of mating FRAX597 plugs in St Andrew’s Cross spiders and document considerable variation in the formation and persistence of mating plugs that is likely to reflect male and female conflict over mate plugging.”
“In addition to its antibacterial activity, the cathelicidin-derived LL-37 peptide induces multiple immunomodulatory effects on host cells. Atomic force microscopy, F-actin staining with phalloidin, passage of FITC-conjugated dextran through a monolayer of lung epithelial cells, and assessment of bacterial outgrowth from cells subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection were used to determine LL-37′s effect on epithelial cell mechanical properties, permeability, and bacteria uptake. A concentration-dependent increase in stiffness and F-actin content in the cortical region of A549 cells and primary human lung epithelial cells was observed after treatment with LL-37 (0.5-5 mu M), sphingosine 1-phosphate (1 mu M), or LPS (1 mu g/ml) or infection with PAO1 bacteria.

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