e ϕSE20, Fels2 and S Typhi CT18 ST27 and ST35 phages [21] One

e. ϕSE20, Fels2 and S. Typhi CT18 ST27 and ST35 phages [21]. One lineage, the PT4 lineage, was defined as positive for ϕSE20 and negative for Fels2, ST27 and ST35, selleck chemicals llc whereas a second lineage, the PT8-PT13 lineage, was defined as negative for ϕSE20 but positive for Fels2, ST27 and ST35. Our results however, show that all Uruguayan isolates tested belong to the PT4 lineage as defined by Guard-Petter [30], and are negative for Fels2, ST27 and ST35 phage regions regardless of the presence or absence of ϕSE20, thus they do not strictly

fall within the two separates groups as previously proposed [21]. Several prophage-related genes present on the microarray from other non-S. AZD1390 order Enteritidis serovars were found in some of the isolates.

Many of them are grouped here as regions 10 to 16 (Table 4). Regions 15 and 16 were only found in the Kenyan S. Enteritidis AF3353 isolate. Region 15 encodes 23 (out of 45) genes corresponding to sequences of the S. Typhi CT18 P2-family prophage ST35 [31]. Region 16 harbours 32 genes from another P2-family prophage, ϕSopE, also found in S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi that encodes the type III secretion system effector protein SopE important for invasion of enterocytes [31–33]. In S. Enteritidis, SopE is encoded Selleck Tideglusib in an unrelated lambdoid phage SE12 [27, 33], which is present in all S. Enteritidis isolates tested here. We found that the two oldest Uruguayan pre-epidemic isolates (31/88, 08/89) harbour 31 genes (regions 10 to 12) that correspond to phage genes carried by S. Typhimurium DT104 or S. Typhimurium SL1344, or genes from ϕGifsy-1 of S. Typhimurium LT2. Interestingly, Regions 10 and 12A-B were not previously found in S. Enteritidis, although this may be due to the fact that previously reported S. Enteritidis

CGH analysis used microarrays that lacked these regions. Both pre-epidemic isolates also carry gogB. GogB is a ϕGifsy-1-encoded type III secreted substrate of both SPI-1 and SPI-2 TTSS in S. Typhimurium LT2 [34]. It has been reported that some salmonellae have Gifsy-1 but not gogB whereas aminophylline others do not have Gifsy-1 but do have gogB, suggesting that this gene has been recently acquired by Gifsy-1 [34, 35]. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of S. Enteritidis harbouring this gene. Thus, we designed a pair of primers that amplifies a 248 bp fragment of gogB, and used them to screen for its presence among the 85 strains also assayed for ϕSE20. No other isolate was positive for gogB. We then sequenced the PCR fragment from both pre-epidemic strains and found that the sequence has 99% of identity with S. Typhimurium LT2 gogB. In summary, 10 out of the 16 variable genomic regions found among S. Enteritidis isolates correspond to phage-like regions, suggesting that, as in other serovars of Salmonella, phages play a crucial role in the generation of genetic diversity in S. Enteritidis [20, 31].

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