e during the first interval and the two infusions) were the thal

e. during the first interval and the two infusions) were the thalamus, insula, cingulated gyri, temporal pole and some parts of the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes (Table 1). Activation of the postcentral and precentral gyri occurred during the saline and HCl infusions, but not during the first interval (Figs 1,2). There were no distinct differences between the two infusions in the activated cerebral regions. Visceral sensory and motor abnormalities are often seen in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and the brain–gut interaction plays an important role in the development of these abnormalities. Recently, brain imaging techniques, such as positron emission

tomography and fMRI, have been used to examine this interaction.1,8 Many studies that have investigated brain responses Opaganib in vivo during visceral stimulation in FGID patients or healthy volunteers have been published. Because the results have often been contradictory, Derbyshire systematically reviewed the published studies as a critical appraisal and revealed that during visceral stimulation key regions, including the insula, and prefrontal, anterior cingulate and

primary sensory cortices, were activated in the majority of studies.1 In most of these published studies, balloon distension was used for visceral stimulation and the responses of the lower gastrointestinal LEE011 concentration tract were examined. There are few studies of the regional activation during esophageal acid exposure.9,10 In the case of acid stimulation

of the esophagus, the task model is unclear and so contradictory results may be acquired when using model-based techniques for the analysis. Independent component analysis is a method of identifying a single source from mixed independent sources, and does not need a priori information of the task, namely a task model. Moreover, group ICA is used to study specific conditions among subjects to hide individual differences, which ICA preserves.11 In our study, fMRI data were analyzed using group ICA, which revealed that several common cerebral regions were activated under three of the study conditions: during the first interval, the saline infusion, and the HCl infusion. Activated regions included the insula and cingulate gyri, which have been reported as activated during visceral stimulation. These regions were activated during MCE公司 the first interval as well as during the two infusions. It may have been caused by inserting the multi-lumen catheter transnasally, although there is a possibility that activity seen in those areas was background brain activity. Acid and saline infusion into the esophagus did not cause heartburn, whereas activation of the postcentral and precentral gyri was detected during liquid infusion. Although the subjects other than two subjects did not feel the liquid infusion, their brain might recognize the existence of liquid in the esophagus, thereby leading to possible swallowing.

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