Further, the implications on the computation of the peeling behav

Further, the implications on the computation of the peeling behavior of gecko spatulae are discussed. It is observed that the spatula geometry lies in the range where the peeling work attains a maximum.”
“Red colored bright visible

light fracto-mechanoluminescence was observed successfully from ruby (Cr doped Al2O3) and Cr doped spinel (Cr doped MgAl2O4) crystals in mechanical processes such as cutting, grinding and polishing. Fracto-mechanoluminescence spectra from ruby (peaking at lambda=696 nm) and Cr doped spinel (peaking at lambda=693 nm) perfectly agree selleck chemicals with those of photoluminescence (PL) from Cr3+ ions in ruby and spinal crystals, respectively. In the grinding and polishing processes, peak intensities and peak wavelength of fract-mechanoluminescence from ruby and Cr doped spinel crystals varies with roughness (grain size, #)

of the diamond disk. Fracto-mechanoluminescence is expected to be used in the in-situ evaluation of fracture of crystals in cutting, grinding and polishing for highly precise mechanical processes. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been highlighted as a likely first step in the ‘atopic march’, emphasizing the need to define predisposing factors. Methods: We evaluated AD risk factors and phenotypes in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. We defined three phenotypes of doctor-diagnosed AD based on the time of onset of the disease: early AD occurring within the first 6 months of life, AD occurring between 6 and 12 months and late-onset AD starting after the age of 12 months. Results: Maternal check details allergic history was associated with an increased risk of developing early-onset AD (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 20.46, 95% confidence interval (CI)

2.73-153.15, p smaller than 0.01). Maternal allergic history and attendance at a daycare centre increased the odds of the development of AD between 6 and 12 months (aOR 4.19, 95% CI 1.01-17.45, p = 0.049 and aOR 11.42, 95% CI 1.49-87.50, p = 0.02, respectively). Risk factors associated with increased odds of late-onset AD from 12 months were the consumption of probiotics between the age of 9 and 12 months and antibiotic treatment in the first 6 months of life (aOR 4.32, 95% CI 1.07-17.45, p = 0.04 and aOR 3.11, 95% CI 1.10-8.76, p = 0.03, respectively). Cell Cycle inhibitor Early-onset AD was associated with an increased risk of developing allergic sensitization (aOR 46.51, 95% CI 3.44-628.81, p smaller than 0.01). Conclusion: We found that early-onset AD was mainly associated with familial factors, while late-onset AD was associated with the consumption of antibiotics or probiotics. The findings support the concept that different phenotypes of AD exist in young children. (C) 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Intensification of glycemic control is associated with weight gain, however, less is known about weight change during the maintenance phase of glycemic management.

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