In a recent study, Warren et al 14 sequenced the TCR repertoire,

In a recent study, Warren et al.14 sequenced the TCR repertoire, and successfully obtained more than one billion TSA HDAC chemical structure raw reads from a single blood sample, which is the deepest immune receptor sequencing to date, with a yield of about 200 million TCR-β nucleotide sequences. There are other sequencing machines available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. We concentrate on the two machines mentioned above, as they are the only machines used so far in sequencing the immunological repertoire.

Other machines include the SOLiD sequencer (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY), Helicos (Cambridge, MA), PacBio (Menlo Park, CA), and IonTorrent (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY).11,15,16 The task at hand, for unbiased Rep-Seq protocols, is to isolate the relevant sequences, from the source B and T cells. These sequences are then sequenced by an NGS machine. To determine relative abundance of different sequences within the repertoire, a

proper account for each of the source sequences is made. Any biased amplification of some of the sequences will leave us with a skewed view of the repertoire. If, for example, one of the sequences in the process is favoured for amplification in one of the stages of the protocol, then we are left unable to discriminate such amplification from actual dominance of the clone in the repertoire. Causes for amplification are therefore an extremely sensitive issue in Rep-Seq and different groups provide different solutions (see below). Upon isolation of the appropriate genetic material (RNA/DNA, B cells/T cells), Rep-Seq requires ABT-263 purchase the ‘lifting’ of the relevant immunoglobulin coding region. This is mostly done through a PCR-based amplification step. This amplification involves DNA primers with complementarities to the target regions. The standard technique uses multiple sets of primers, which are usually compatible with germline V

and J segments17–22 (Fig. 2a). It is impossible to design primers for all the numerous gene segments; for this reason Phloretin primers are designed for families of genes or consensus sequences so that most gene segments are detected.23 A common primer should be designed to recognize the highest consensus region, whereas unique or family primers should recognize the least consensus region within a segment. In addition, specific tags can be added to the primers; for example, to identify from which sample a sequence was amplified.21 However, using a multiplex PCR amplification system, a strong bias is expected towards specific V and J segments, and so observed sequence relative abundances may not accurately reflect real amounts. To deal with these issues, 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5′-RACE) has been used (see refs 14,24,25; Fig. 1b). The group of Daniel Douek at the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD) have recently established their own 5′ RACE protocol.

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