In Canada, Worthington et al [29] found that employment status a

In Canada, Worthington et al. [29] found that employment status and the presence of symptoms were independent predictive factors of poorer quality of life scores in MOS-HIV questionnaire regression models. Similarly, in a group of Italian patients, Murri et al. [25] found that find more the factors associated with poor PHS were low CD4 cell count, having been hospitalized, and the presence of symptoms, while a low level of satisfaction with information received, having been hospitalized and the

presence of symptoms were predictive factors of poor MHS. The findings of our study highlight the importance of evaluation of HRQL and related factors in HIV-infected patients. Further investigation is warranted to verify our findings in greater numbers of patients and in studies with a prospective design, in which the significance of associations could be determined over time, which may allow more definitive conclusions to be reached regarding efficient health care for HIV-infected patients. “
“Knowledge about advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal

disease (ESRD) in HIV-positive GW 572016 persons is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate incidence, predictors and outcomes for advanced CKD/ESRD and renal death. Advanced CKD was defined as confirmed (two consecutive measurements ≥ 3 months apart) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 using Cockcroft−Gault, and ESRD as haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for ≥ 1 month or renal transplant. Renal death was death with renal disease as the underlying cause, using Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) methodology. Follow-up was from 1 January 2004 until last eGFR measurement, advanced CKD, ESRD or renal death, whichever occurred first. Poisson regression was used to identify predictors. Of 9044 individuals included in the study, 58 (0.64%) experienced Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase advanced CKD/ESRD/renal death [incidence rate 1.32/1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU); 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98–1.66]; 52% of those who experienced the endpoint had a baseline eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2

compared with 3% of those who did not. Using Kaplan−Meier methods, at 6 years from baseline, 0.83% (95% CI 0.59–1.07%) were estimated to have experienced the endpoint overall and 11.26% (95% CI 6.75–15.78%) among those with baseline eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Independent predictors of the endpoint included any cardiovascular event [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.16; 95% CI 1.24–3.77], lower eGFR (IRR 0.64 per 5 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI 0.59–0.70) and lower CD4 count (IRR 0.77 per doubling; 95% CI 0.62–0.95). One year after experiencing advanced CKD or ESRD, an estimated 19.21% (95% CI 7.84–30.58%) of patients had died, mostly from extra-renal causes. The incidence of advanced CKD/ESRD/renal death was low and predictors included traditional renal risk factors, HIV-related factors and pre-existing renal impairment.

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