In conclusion, this study has identified C  concisus proteins tha

In conclusion, this study has identified C. concisus proteins that are immunoreactive within patients with Crohn’s disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing idiopathic diseases of

the gastrointestinal tract (Hendrickson et al., 2002). The two most common forms of IBD, Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), account for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide (Sonnenberg, 1990; Hendrickson et al., 2002). Additionally, these chronic inflammatory disorders are often associated with an increased risk of developing cancers such as colorectal LEE011 order cancer and colitis-associated adenocarcinoma (McConnell & Yang, 2009). Over the last 30 years, the incidence of IBD, and in particular CD, has increased worldwide (Griffiths, 2004; Walters et al., 2004), resulting in an increasing public health-care burden in both developed and developing countries (Cohen et al., 2010). The etiology of IBD remains unknown, but increasing evidence suggests that an initiator, believed to be either gastrointestinal microorganisms or their byproducts, in association with a disruption of the gastrointestinal epithelium, stimulates and subsequently drives a dysregulated immune response in genetically predisposed individuals (Sartor, 1997; Griffiths, 2004). The possible role of Campylobacter species in IBD, if any, remains relatively unexplored territory. While a number of studies examining a

possible link between Campylobacter jejuni and IBD (Blaser et al., 1984; Weber et al., 1992; Boyanova et al., 2004) have failed to provide evidence for this association, several case reports would suggest that C. jejuni infection may be associated with flare-ups of CD and UC. A recent study has also suggested that C. jejuni may facilitate the transcellular passage of intestinal organisms in IBD (Kalischuk et al., 2009). Owing to the

ability of Campylobacter species to use their unique corkscrew-like motility to swim through the thick intestinal mucus layer, allowing them close contact with the intestinal epithelium, we recently investigated the possible association between non-C. jejuni Campylobacter species and CD. These previous studies identified a possible link between C. concisus and Masitinib (AB1010) newly diagnosed CD. In the first of these studies, we showed, based on a Campylobacter genus-specific PCR and sequencing, that a significantly higher prevalence of C. concisus DNA was present in children with newly diagnosed CD (53%) than in controls (2%) (P < 0.0001) (Zhang et al., 2009). Additionally, a significantly higher level of C. concisus-specific IgG antibodies was detected in children with CD as compared with controls. These findings were confirmed in a larger cohort of children with CD and controls (Man et al., 2010c). An important outcome of these studies was the successful isolation of C. concisus from an intestinal biopsy of a child with CD, as this allowed us to investigate the pathogenic potential of this C. concisus strain (C.

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